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Table 4 Associations between study problems and parent-child relationship problems and depression (binary outcome)

From: Study problems and depressive symptoms in adolescents during the COVID-19 outbreak: poor parent-child relationship as a vulnerability

Study/parent-child relationship problems Odds ratio and 95% CI (n = 6435)
M1: sex and age M2: M1 + economic status, school type, mother’s education and father’s education M3: M2 + relatives/friends died or with serious illness, quarantine experience and feelings about the pandemic
No problem of either type Reference   
Study problems only 3.35 (2.75 to 4.08) 3.26 (2.67 to 3.98) 3.21 (2.62 to 3.92)
Parent-child relationship problems only 2.51 (0.95 to 6.64) 2.18 (0.82 to 5.84) 2.11 (0.78 to 5.67)
Both study and parent-child relationship problems 18.37 (13.28 to 25.40) 16.69 (12.00 to 23.19) 16.25 (11.68 to 22.62)
  1. Using multivariable logistic regression analyses with dichotomized depression as dependent variable and study/parent-child relationship problems as independent variable. Odds ratios indicate the likelihood of having depression for people with a type of study/parent-child relationship problems