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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population

From: Study problems and depressive symptoms in adolescents during the COVID-19 outbreak: poor parent-child relationship as a vulnerability

  Total
(n = 6435)
Good or normal parent-child relationship (n = 6183) Poor parent-child relationship
(n = 252)
Sociodemographic and pandemic variables
 Female, n (%) 3231 (50.2) 3114 (50.4) 117 (46.4)
 Age, years 15.6 (1.7) 15.6 (1.7) 15.4 (1.6)
 Economic status, n (%)
  High 651 (10.1) 634 (10.3) 17 (6.7)
  Middle 5348 (83.1) 5168 (83.6) 180 (71.4)
  Low 436 (6.8) 381 (6.2) 55 (21.8)
 Key school, n (%) 2438 (37.9) 2344 (37.9) 94 (37.3)
 Father’s education, n (%)
  Primary school or lower 1195 (18.6) 1137 (18.4) 59 (23.4)
  Middle/high school 4537 (70.5) 4364 (70.6) 173 (68.7)
  College or higher 702 (10.9) 682 (11.0) 20 (7.9)
 Mother’s education, n (%)
  Primary school or lower 1617 (25.1) 1552 (25.1) 65 (25.8)
  Middle/high school 4147 (64.4) 3985 (64.5) 162 (64.3)
  College or higher 671 (10.4) 646 (10.4) 25 (9.9)
 Relatives/friends died or with serious illness, n (%) 374 (5.8) 357 (5.8) 17 (6.7)
 Collective/home quarantine, n (%) 1378 (21.4) 1306 (21.1) 72 (28.6)
 Nervous/anxious about the pandemic, n (%) 3138 (48.8) 3020 (48.8) 118 (46.8)
Depressive symptoms measures
 Total Score for the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI) (range 0–54) 11.5 (7.7) 11.2 (7.4) 19.9 (9.9)
 CDI ≥ 19, n (%) 1140 (17.7) 1008 (16.3) 132 (52.4)
Study problems
 Having difficulty in studying at home, n (%) 3490 (54.2) 3300 (53.4) 190 (75.4)
 Having difficulty in studying in school, n (%) 2857 (44.4) 2707 (43.8) 150 (59.5)
 Dislike remote learning, n (%) 2967(46.1) 2803 (45.3) 164 (65.1)
 Screen entertainment ≥8 h/day, n (%) 733 (11.4) 692 (11.2) 41 (16.3)
  1. Data are mean (SD) or n (%)