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Table 1 Predicting working adults’ depression disorder, anxiety disorder, and overall mental health score (N = 601)

From: Typhoon eye effect versus ripple effect: the role of family size on mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan

Variables n (%) Logistic regression Linear regression
Distress Anxiety Mental health
OR (95%CI) p-value OR (95%CI) p-value b (95%CI) p-value
Gender
Male 315 (52.4) .74 (.42–1.33) .315 1.09 (.72–1.65) .688 −.98 (− 2.62–.64) .233
Female 286 (47.6)
Age
18–19 30 (5.0) .97 (.92–1.02) .178 .98 (.93–1.03) .421 .23*** (.06–.40) .007
20–29 339 (57.4)
30–39 156 (26.0)
40–79 70 (11.6)
Marital status
Single 407 (67.7) ----------------------------Reference-----------------------------
Married 185 (30.8) 1.09 (.46–2.59) .845 .89 (.47–1.69) .722 −.35 (− 2.66–1.97) .770
Divorced 9 (1.7) 2.02 (.18–22.8) .570 .69 (.08–6.45) .748 −1.91 (− 10.70–6.86) .668
Education
Primary 2 (0.3) . 95 (.51–1.76) .865 1.10 (.67–1.80) .698 −1.96 (−3.96–.03) .054
Secondary 1 (0.2)
Intermediate 175 (29.0)
Graduate or higher 424 (70.5)
Exercise hours per day
Mean [SD] 0.77 [0.79] .66 (.45–.96) .028 .81 (.63–1.05) .112 1.28 (.31–2.25) .010
Distance to Karachi (1000 km)
Mean [SD] 0.27 [0.51] .54 (.18–1.6) .265 .58 (.27–1.24) .160 3.51 (.74–6.28) .013
Family size
1 5 (0.8) .76 (.61–.94) .013 .91 (.82–1.00) .052 .19 (−.13–.50) .245
2 17 (2.8)
3 54 (9.0)
4 99 (16.5)
5 134 (22.3)
6 122 (20.3)
7 58 (9.7)
8 41 (6.8)
9 20 (3.3)
  ≥ 10 51 (8.49)
Distance * Family size 1.25 (1.04–1.49) .017 1.14 (1.03–1.26) .015 −.71 (−1.04 – -.38) .000