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Table 3 Background and pre-lockdown living conditions as predictors of a decreased self-rated mental health, and of an increase in depression symptoms PHQ-9 score and in anxiety symptoms GAD-7 score. Result from logistic regression analysis

From: A longitudinal study of mental health before and during COVID-19 lockdown in the French population

  # participants (% with decreased mental health status score) Adjusted ORa
[95% CI]
# participants (% with increase in depression symptoms PHQ-9 score) Adjusted ORa
[95% CI]
# participants (% with increase in anxiety symptoms GAD-7 score) Adjusted ORa
[95% CI]
Total 1085 (38.9)   954 (16.1)   958 (13.3)  
Gender
 Male 539 (35.4) Ref 480 (11.2) Ref 478 (10.0) Ref
 Female 546 (42.3) 1.25 [0.95–1.63] 474 (21.1) 1.78 [1.20–2.65] 480 (16.5) 1.78 [1.18–2.68]
Age
 [23–49] 211 (46.0) 1.74 [1.19–2.54] 186 (24.7) 2.04 [1.17–3.57] 185 (16.2) 1.42 [0.80–2.52]
 [50–59] 196 (35.7) 1.10 [0.75–1.63] 172 (14.5) 1.23 [0.67–2.23] 169 (13.0) 1.19 [0.65–2.19]
 [60–69] 329 (33.4) Ref 291 (10.3) Ref 294 (9.5) Ref
 70 and over 349 (41.5) 1.52 [1.10–2.11] 305 (17.4) 1.83 [1.10–3.02] 310 (15.2) 1.71 [1.03–2.85]
Lives alone
 Yes 242 (39.7)   208 (22.1) 1.78 [1.16–2.72] 217 (16.1)  
 No 816 (38.2)   723 (14.1) Ref 717 (12.6)  
Personal outdoor space
 Yes 879 (37.0) Ref 779 (15.1)   775 (12.3)  
 No 204 (47.5) 1.38 [1.00–1.89] 173 (20.8)   182 (17.6)  
Size of living space
 30m2 per person 150 (44.0)   138 (25.4) 1.98 [1.19–3.30] 137 (14.6)  
 More than 30m2 per person 903 (37.5)   788 (14.1) Ref 793 (13.0)  
Self-perceived physical health at recruitment
 1 to 7 469 (36.5)   410 (18.0)   404 (17.8) 3.31 [1.84–5.95]
 8 335 (39.4)   307 (16.9)   298 (13.1) 2.47 [1.32–4.62]
 9 to 10 278 (42.8)   231 (11.3)   248 (6.0) Ref
Self-perceived mental health at recruitment
 1 to 7    348 (19.3)   336 (14.9)  
 8    248 (14.5)   251 (15.5)  
 9 to 10    352 (13.9)   365 (10.1)  
Weekly time spent outdoors
  ≤ 3 h 832 (37.3) Ref 726 (15.4)   727 (12.9)  
  + 3 h 238 (46.2) 1.47 [1.08–1.99] 216 (19.0)   220 (14.1)  
Daily screen exposure time
  ≤ 1 h 275 (46.9) Ref 234 (17.5)   237 (16.5)  
  + 1 h 756 (37.2) 0.65 [0.49–0.87] 679 (16.1)   680 (12.4)  
Current smoker
 Yes 100 (40.0)   87 (24.1)   90 (20.0)  
 No 969 (39.0)   860 (15.3)   860 (12.7)  
Housing
 Apartment 298 (43.3)   256 (18.0)   267 (14.6)  
 House 715 (36.9)   637 (15.9)   627 (12.3)  
Depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 > 4)
 Yes      231 (19.9)  
 No      643 (11.4)  
Anxiety symptoms (GAD-7 > 4)
 Yes    150 (20.0)    
 No    733 (15.3)    
Monthly household income
 Less than €1.250 per individual 267 (36.3)   245 (21.6)   229 (14.4)  
 More than €1.250 per individual 637 (39.4)   555 (14.4)   569 (12.5)  
Holidays
 Maximum once in two years 129 (47.3)   117 (23.9)   107 (20.6)  
 More 942 (38.0)   826 (15.0)   841 (12.1)  
  1. a Variable selection followed a manual backward selection process