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Table 2 Predictors of anxiety and depression (Adjusted OR: Odds Ratio; CI: 95% confidence interval)

From: Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on psychological well-being of students in an Italian university: a web-based cross-sectional survey

ANXIETY
Variable Category Anxiety
   No Yes OR [95% CI] P-value
   N (%) N (%)   
Total   302 (64.67) 165 (35.33)   
Gender Male 104 (77.04) 31 (22.96)  
Female 198 (59.64) 134 (40.36) 2.44 [1.769–3.861] < 0.0001
   Median (IQR) Median (IQR)   
Age   23.1 (3.49) 22.5(3.52) 0.97 [0.94–1.004] 0.083
Area of residence North 115 (68.86) 52 (31.14)  
  Center 78 (65.0) 42 (35.0) 1.08 [0.517–2.267] 0.883
  South and Island 109 (60.56) 71 (39.44) 1.36 [0.701–2.663] 0.358
Faculty Other 62 (75.61) 20 (24.39)  
Medicine 176 (61.32) 111 (38.68) 3.62 [0.422–31.155] 0.240
Psychology 64 (65.31) 34 (34.69) 1.20 [0.605–2.382] 0.600
Campus (Brescia Milano Piacenza-Cremona) 120 (69.36) 53 (30.64)  
  Rome 182 (61.90) 112 (38.10) 1.55 [1.032–2.340] 0.035
Live alone No 276 (65.25) 147 (34.75)  
  Yes 26 (59.09) 18 (40.91) 1.29 [0.67–2.48] 0.451
Know people who have tested positive No 217 (66.77) 108 (33.23)  
Yes 85 (59.86) 57 (40.14) 1.49 [0.97–2.29] 0.068
Engage in physical activities No 75 (56.82) 57 (43.18)  
Yes 227 (67.76) 108 (32.24) 0.58 [0.383–0.901] 0.015
Suffering from the impossibility of seeing one’s partner Strongly disagree 27 (77.14) 8 (22.86)  
Disagree 2 (66.67) 1 (33.33) 1.34 [1.07–1.67] 0.010
Moderate 15 (88.24) 2 (11.76)   
Agree 38 (71.70) 15 (28.30)   
Strongly agree 71 (55.47) 57 (44.53)   
Concerned about COVID-19 Strongly disagree 18 (78.26) 5 (21.74)  
Disagree 79 (68.70) 36 (31.30) 1.27 [1.03–1.56] 0.023
Moderate 116 (65.17) 62 (34.83)   
Agree 78 (61.90) 48 (38.10)   
Strongly agree 11 (44.00) 14 (56.00)   
Pandemic feels like something distant Strongly disagree 198 (61.68) 123 (38.32)  
Disagree 80 (68.97) 36 (31.03) 0.68 [0.492–0.949] 0.023
Moderate 17 (73.91) 6 (26.09)   
Agree 6 (100.0) 0   
Strongly agree 1 (100.0) 0   
Understand preventive measures Strongly disagree 0 0  
Disagree 1 (50) 1 (50.0) 0.79 [0.56–1.11] 0.166
Moderate 9(60) 6 (40.0)   
Agree 88 (62.86) 52 (37.14)   
Strongly agree 204 (65.81) 106 (34.19)   
Fear about containment of the pandemic Strongly disagree 32 (80.0) 8 (20.0)  
Disagree 80 (78.43) 22 (21.57) 1.66 [1.383–2.007] < 0.0001
Moderate 106 (72.60) 40 (27.40)   
Agree 59 (50.86) 57 (49.14)   
Strongly agree 25 (39.68) 38 (60.32)   
Fear about the increase in positive cases Strongly disagree 7 (58.33) 5 (41.67)  
Disagree 35 (81.40) 8 (18.60) 1.41 [1.155–1.737] 0.001
Moderate 70 (73.68) 25 (26.32)   
Agree 118 (69.01) 53 (30.99)   
Strongly agree 72 (49.32) 74 (50.68)   
Fear about the increase in deaths Strongly disagree 6 (66.67) 3 (33.33)  
Disagree 30 (85.71) 5 (14.29) 1.60 [1.28–2.00] < 0.0001
Moderate 65 (77.38) 19 (22.62)   
Agree 113 (68.90) 51 (31.10)   
Strongly agree 88 (50.29) 87 (49.71)   
Suffering from distance to fellow students Strongly disagree 41 (74.55) 14 (25.45)  
Disagree 42 (73.68) 15 (26.32) 1.35 [1.156–1.590] < 0.0001
Moderate 58 (67.44) 28 (32.56)   
Agree 110 (70.97) 45 (29.03)   
Strongly agree 51 (44.74) 63 (55.26)   
Suffering from impossibility of attending university Strongly disagree 37 (77.08) 11 (22.92)  
Disagree 40 (76.92) 12 (23.08) 1.37 [1.167–1.616] < 0.0001
Moderate 45 (71.43) 18 (28.57)   
Agree 101 (64.74) 55 (35.26)   
Strongly agree 79 (53.38) 69 (46.62)   
Desire to contribute much more to facing the pandemic Strongly disagree 12 (75.0) 4 (25.0)  
Disagree 33 (75.0) 11 (25.0) 1.33 [1.095–1.636] 0.004
Moderate 90 (69.23) 40 (30.77)   
Agree 112 (67.88) 53 (32.12)   
Strongly agree 55 (49.11) 57 (50.89)   
Suffering from the impossibility of playing sports outside Strongly disagree 88 (65.19) 47 (34.81)  
Disagree 70 (69.31) 31 (30.69) 1.07 [0.93–1.23] 0.317
Moderate 56 (60.22) 37 (39.78)   
Agree 49 (70.0) 21 (30.0)   
Strongly agree 39 (57.35) 29 (42.65)   
Suffering from the impossibility of seeing one’s partner during the lockdown Strongly disagree 27 (77.14) 8 (22.86)  
Disagree 2 (66.67) 1 (33.33) 1.20 [1.004–1.450] 0.045
Moderate 15 (88.24) 2 (11.76)   
Agree 38 (71.70) 15 (28.30)   
Strongly agree 71 (55.47) 57 (44.53)   
Concerned about the possibility that the pandemic could reduce one’s concentration on academic activities Strongly disagree 69 (88.46) 9 (11.54)  
Disagree 61 (75.31) 20 (24.69) 1.92 [1.61–2.29] < 0.0001
Moderate 70 (68.63) 32 (31.37)   
Agree 62 (61.39) 39 (38.61)   
Strongly agree 20 (26.32) 56 (73.68)   
Concerned that preventive measures could hinder one’s studies Strongly disagree 79 (81.44) 18 (18.56)  
Disagree 72 (75.0) 24 (25.0) 1.67 [1.42–1.96] < 0.0001
Moderate 60 (63.83) 34 (36.17)   
Agree 52 (56.52) 40 (43.48)   
Strongly agree 19 (32.20) 40 (67.80)   
Concerned about returning to university Strongly disagree 111 (70.25) 47 (29.75)  
Disagree 75 (72.82) 28 (27.18) 1.25 [1.08–1.44] 0.003
Moderate 41 (56.16) 32 (43.84)   
Agree 28 (59.57) 19 (40.43)   
Strongly agree 27 (47.37) 30 (52.63)   
Concerned about future career because of the COVID-19 pandemic Strongly disagree 63 (73.26) 23 (26.74)  
Disagree 47 (63.51) 27 (36.49) 1.26 [1.09–1.46] 0.002
Moderate 51 (64.56) 28 (35.44)   
Agree 78 (70.27) 33 (29.73)   
Strongly agree 43 (48.86) 45 (51.14)   
Determined to complete studies Strongly disagree 16 (48.48) 17 (51.52)  
Disagree 34 (60.71) 22 (39.29) 0.81 [0.69–0.96] 0.014
Moderate 80 (62.99) 47 (37.01)   
Agree 73 (65.18) 39 (34.82)   
Strongly agree 79 (71.82) 31 (28.18)   
Feel optimistic about a solution to the pandemic Strongly Disagree 20 (40.82) 29 (59.18)   
Disagree 58 (59.79) 39 (40.21) 0.71 [0.59–0.85] < 0.0001
Moderate 93 (65.96) 48 (34.04)   
Agree 86 (74.14) 30 (25.86)   
Strongly agree 25 (71.43) 10 (28.57)   
Patient health engagement scale 4 45 (85.33) 9 (16.67)  
3 213 (70.07) 91 (29.93) 2.71 [1.923–3.846] < 0.0001
2 42 (44.68) 52 (55.32)   
1 2 (13.33) 13 (86.67)   
DEPRESSION
Variable Category Depression
   No Yes OR [95% CI] p value
   N (%) N (%)   
Total   121 (27.07) 326 (72.93)   
Gender Male 38 93  
Female 83 233 1.15 [0.73–1.82] 0.553
   Median (IQR) Median (IQR)   
Age   23.18 (3.67) 22.71 (3.39) 0.994 [0.957–1.031] 0.743
Area of residence North 48 (30.38) 110 (69.62)  
Center 25 (21.19) 93 (78.81) 1.21 [0.555–2.678] 0.621
South and Island 48 (28.07) 123 (71.93) 0.87 [0.438–1.730] 0.695
Faculty Other 28 (36.84) 48 (63.16)  
Medicine 68 (24.46) 210 (75.54) 0.60 [0.694–5.291] 0.651
Psychology 25 (26.88) 68 (73.12) 1.64 [0.825–.265] 0.157
Campus (Brescia Milano Piacenza-Cremona) 52 (31.90) 111 (68.10)  
Rome 69 (24.30) 215 (75.70) 1.49 [0.970–.297] 0.068
Lived alone during the lockdown No 109 (26.85) 297 (73.15)  
Yes 12 (29.27) 29 (70.73) 0.82 [0.401–1.685] 0.740
Known positive cases No 86 (27.65) 225 (72.35)  
Yes 35 (25.74) 101 (74.26) 1.209 [0.754–1.937] 0.431
Physical activity during the lockdown No 42 (33.33) 84 (66.67)  
Yes 79 (24.61) 242 (75.39) 1.57 [0.996–2.488] 0.100
Suffering from the impossibility of seeing one’s partner during the lockdown Strongly disagree 8 (23.53) 26 (76.47)  
Disagree 1 (33.33) 2 (66.67) 1.12 [0.937–1.354] 0.2045
Moderate 8 (23.53) 9 (52.94)   
Agree 16 (30.77) 36 (69.23)   
Strongly agree 28 (22.95) 94 (77.059   
Concerned about COVID-19 Strongly disagree 4 (19.05) 17 (80.95)  
Disagree 31 (28.44) 78 (71.56) 1.01 [0.813–1.259] 0.917
Moderate 48 (28.07) 123 (71.93)   
Agree 34 (27.87) 88 (72.13)   
Strongly agree 4 (16.67) 20 (82.33)   
Pandemic feels like something distant Strongly disagree 81 (26.05) 230 (73.95)  
Disagree 31 (28.44) 78 (71.56) 0.94 [0.690–1.289] 0.715
Moderate 9 (45.0) 11 (55.0)
Agree 0 6 (100.0)
Strongly agree 0 1 (100.0)
Understand preventive measures Strongly disagree 0 0  
Disagree 1 (50.0) 1 (50.0) 1.19 [0.83–.69] 0.331
Moderate 7 (46.67) 8 (53.33)   
Agree 34 (25.56) 99 (74.44)   
Strongly agree 79 (26.60) 218 (73.40)   
Fear about containment of the pandemic Strongly disagree 6 (15.79) 32 (84.21)  
Disagree 32 (32.99) 65 (67.01) 0.97 [0.802–1.166] 0.731
Moderate 37 (26.62) 102 (73.38)   
Agree 32 (28.57) 80 (71.43)   
Strongly agree 14 (22.95) 47 (77.05)   
Fear about the increase in positive cases Strongly disagree 3 (25.0) 9 (75.0)  
Disagree 12 (27.91) 31 (72.09) 0.89 [0.724–1.098] 0.283
Moderate 18 (19.57) 74 (80.43)   
Agree 49 (30.25) 113 (69.75)   
Strongly agree 39 (28.26) 99 (71.74)   
Fear about the increase in deaths Strongly disagree 2 (22.22) 7 (77.78)  
Disagree 7 (20.0) 28 (80.0) 0.80 [0.64–1.10] 0.101
Moderate 17 (20.99) 64 (79.01)   
Agree 45 (28.85) 45 (28.85)   
Strongly agree 50 (30.12) 50 (30.12)   
Suffering from the distance from one’s fellow students Strongly disagree 17 (33.33) 34 (66.67)  
Disagree 21 (37.50) 35 (62.50) 1.15 [0.993–1.369] 0.060
Moderate 18 (22.22) 63 (77.78)   
Agree 42 (27.81) 109 (72.19)   
Strongly agree 23 (21.30) 85 (78.70)   
Suffering from the impossibility of attending university Strongly disagree 14 (30.43) 32 (69.57)  
Disagree 17 (34.69) 32 (65.31) 1.12 [0.957–1.313] 0.155
Moderate 14 (24.14) 55 (75.86)   
Agree 44 (28.95) 108 (71.05)   
Strongly agree 32 (22.54) 110 (77.46)   
Desire to contribute much more to facing the pandemic Strongly disagree 4 (25.0) 12 (75)  
Disagree 12 (27.27) 32 (72.73) 1.12 [0.921–1.379] 0.243
Moderate 40 (32.26) 84 (67.74)   
Agree 46 (29.68) 109 (70.32)   
Strongly agree 19 (17.59) 89 (82.41)   
Suffering from the impossibility of playing sports outside Strongly disagree 35 (27.13) 94 (72.87)  
Disagree 31 (32.98) 63 (67.02) 1.06 [0.91–1.23] 0.424
Moderate 22 (24.44) 68 (75.56)   
Agree 17 (24.64) 52 (75.36)   
Strongly agree 16 (24.62) 49 (75.38)   
Suffering from the impossibility of seeing one’s partner during the lockdown Strongly Disagree 8 (25.53) 26 (76.47)  
Disagree 1 (33.33) 2 (66.67) 1.12 [0.937–1.354] 0.205
Moderate 8 (47.06) 9 (52.94)   
Agree 16 (30.77) 36 (69.23)   
Strongly Agree 28 (22.95) 94 (77.05)   
Concerned about the possibility that the pandemic could reduce one’s concentration on academic activities Strongly Disagree 17 (21.79) 61 (78.21)  
Disagree 22 (27.16) 59 (72.84) 0.90 [0.77–1.06] 0.201
Moderate 30 (29.41) 72 (70.59)   
Agree 27 (26.73) 74 (73.27)   
Strongly Agree 23 (30.26) 53 (69.74)   
Concerned that preventive measures could hinder one’s studies Strongly Disagree 19 (19.59) 78 (80.41)  
Disagree 23 (23.96) 73 (76.04) 0.88 [0.75–1.03] 0.115
Moderate 35 (37.23) 59 (62.77)   
Agree 27 (29.35) 65 (70.65)   
Strongly Agree 15 (25.42) 44 (74.58)   
Concerned about returning to university Strongly Disagree 34 (21.52) 124 (78.48)  
Disagree 33 (32.04) 70 (67.96) 0.93 [0.80–1.09] 0.374
Moderate 24 (32.88) 49 (67.12)   
Agree 15 (31.91) 32 (68.09)   
Strongly Agree 13 (22.81) 44 (77.19)   
Concerned about future career because of the COVID-19 pandemic Strongly Disagree 19 (22.09) 67 (77.91)  
Disagree 22 (29.73) 52 (70.27) 0.99 [0.85–1.16] 0.956
Moderate 21 (26.58) 58 (73.42)   
Agree 37 (33.33) 74 (66.67)   
Strongly Agree 20 (22.73) 68 (77.27)   
Determined to complete studies Strongly Disagree 7 (21.21) 26 (78.79)  
Disagree 20 (35.71) 36 (64.29) 1.07 [0.89–1.27] 0.475
Moderate 37 (29.13) 90 (70.87)   
Agree 27 (24.11) 85 (75.89)   
Strongly Agree 28 (25.45) 82 (74.55)   
Feeling optimistic about a solution to the pandemic Strongly Disagree 13 (26.53) 36 (73.47)  
Disagree 30 (30.93) 67 (69.07) 1.12 [0.93–1.36] 0.242
Moderate 40 (28.37) 101 (71.63)   
Agree 30 (25.86) 86 (74.14)   
Strongly Agree 6 (17.14) 29 (82.86)   
Patient health engagement scale 4 8 (15.69) 43 (84.31)  
3 88 (30.03) 205 (69.97) 0.97 [0.69–1.33] 0.828
2 24 (26.97) 65 (73.03)   
1 1 (7.14) 13 (92.86)