Skip to main content

Table 1 Variables included in the analysis, definitions, and sources

From: Countries with delayed COVID-19 introduction – characteristics, drivers, gaps, and opportunities

Variable Definition Source
Country characteristics
 Level of development Level of development as measured by per capita gross national income: high-income, upper-middle-income, lower-middle-income and low-income UN World Economic Situation and Prospects (2019)
 Vulnerability classifications Vulnerable country designations by the United Nations: Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries, and Small Island Developing States UN Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and the Small Island Developing States
 Inbound visitor arrival (per capita population) Calculated ratio of inbound visitor arrivals at national borders (non-resident visitors, including overnight and same-day visitors, tourists and excursionists) to country population UN World Tourism Organization (2017–2018); WHO
 Global connectedness index (GCI) An index measures globalization based on trade, capital, information, and people flows; ranking is available on 169 countries and areas: higher rank indicates less global connectedness Altman et al., DHL Global Connectedness Index 2018 - The State of Globalization in a Fragile World (2019)
Health security and healthcare indicators
 Global health security index An index on comprehensive assessment of global health security capabilities in 195 countries that make up the States Parties to the International Health Regulations; ranking on Overall and on Detection are presented (out of 195): higher rank indicates lower health security capabilities Global Health Security Index (2019)
 # Doctor (per 10 k) Number of doctors per 10,000 population WHO Global Health Observatory
 # Nurse & midwives (per 10 k) Number of nurses and midwives per 10,000 population
COVID-19 testing and influenza surveillance
 In-country COVID-19 testing (if yes, capacity) If reporting available test kits or COVID-19-capable laboratories, then “Yes”. If a country has test kits but explicitly states no lab, then “No”. If yes, brief description of testing capacity Official websites and social media channels of country Ministries of Health and other governments, and U.S. Embassies
 Export COVID-19 testing If no in-country testing capability, report that samples had been sent to another country for testing or a plan to export samples for testing
 Influenza surveillance (if yes, type) Reporting influenza surveillance information to WHO Global Influenza Programme from May 2019 and April 2020. If yes, reported laboratory (Lab) and/or epidemiology (ILI: influenza-like illness, SARI: severe acute respiratory infections) surveillances WHO Global Influenza Programme (2019–2020)
Border control measures Yes/No/Unknown  
 Travel restrictions Any international flight suspensions, restricted air/land/sea border crossing activities, or suggestions to postpone travel outside of the country Official websites and social media channels of country Ministries of Health and other governments, and U.S. Embassies
 Border closures Suspension of air/land/sea-based points of entry. Island nations suspending cruise ship docking
 Screening at points of entry Symptom checks screening (e.g. temperature checks), travel history taken, and/or requirement of certification of COVID-19 free
 Traveler quarantine 14-day isolation of travelers entering the country, mandatory or advised, self-isolation or government quarantine at a facility, or initial self-quarantine in country of origin or other disease-free area
COVID-19 preparedness activities Yes/No/Unknown  
 COVID-19 preparedness plan or strategy Mention of a COVID-19 task force, a plan or a strategy for preparing the country for the arrival of COVID-19, either by the country government or through collaboration with WHO, UN, or another country Official websites and social media channels of country Ministries of Health and other governments, and U.S. Embassies
 Mass gathering restrictions Instructions and/or announcements to limit gatherings to a specified number of people or less; mandatory or advised/encouraged
 School closures Extension of school holidays or complete school cancellation
 Business closures Complete closure of some businesses or all non-essential businesses
 Funding for COVID-19 activities Financial resources released by the government or received from an external partner designated for COVID-19 preparedness
 Healthcare worker training COVID-19 trainings or refreshers for healthcare workers
 Availability of PPE Acquisition of a supply of masks, gloves, gowns, respirators, or face shields that’ll be available to health workers.
 Quarantine/isolation facilities Designated locations for travelers or other exposed persons to quarantine or self-isolate for 14 days