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Table 2 Time-to-event analysis (marginal risk set model) predicting implementation of international travel restrictions

From: How does globalization affect COVID-19 responses?

Model (1) (2) (3) (4)
KOF Globalization Index 1.08 (0.0739) 1.17 (0.0958) 1.76** (0.363) 1.80* (0.535)
Neighbor restriction adoption   1.30* (0.141) 1.43*** (0.146) 1.45*** (0.158)
Neighbor COVID-19 case (7-day total, log)   1.09** (0.0312) 1.15*** (0.0429) 1.15*** (0.0438)
Domestic COVID-19 case (7-day total, log)   1.02 (0.0426) 1.02 (0.0470) 1.02 (0.0493)
Less restrictive travel policy adopted   3.28*** (0.577) 3.11*** (0.582) 3.14*** (0.601)
Weekends   0.49* (0.172) 0.39** (0.133) 0.39** (0.134)
Government Effectiveness (WGI)    0.83 (0.241) 0.83 (0.245)
Electoral democracy index    1.05 (0.109) 1.04 (0.111)
GDP per capita (log)    1.10 (0.193) 1.08 (0.196)
Unemployment (%)    1.04** (0.0152) 1.04** (0.0154)
GINI index    0.99 (0.0104) 0.99 (0.0106)
Hospital beds (per 1 k people)    1.10* (0.0399) 1.09* (0.0403)
Population ages 65+ (%)    0.93** (0.0216) 0.94** (0.0219)
Urban population (%)    1.00 (0.00470) 1.00 (0.00490)
Population density (log)    0.99 (0.0556) 0.99 (0.0563)
MERS or SARS experience    0.78 (0.269) 0.78 (0.270)
Continent
 Africa    0.94 (0.305) 0.95 (0.316)
 Asia    1.36 (0.407) 1.38 (0.421)
 Central America    0.52 (0.235) 0.54 (0.243)
 Europe    (ref.) (ref.)
 North America    1.00 (0.481) 0.99 (0.482)
 Oceania    2.32** (0.737) 2.27* (0.726)
 South America    1.35 (0.448) 1.40 (0.462)
KOF*Neighbor restriction adoption     0.93 (0.0720)
KOF*Neighbor COVID-19 case (7-day total, log)     1.02 (0.0312)
Num. obs. 55,163 45,484 35,418 35,418
Num. countries 173 158 121 121
Num. failures 655 594 455 455
Pseudo R2 0.001 0.037 0.068 0.068
Log likelihood − 2140.460 − 1813.963 − 1227.150 − 1226.585
  1. Note: Hazard ratios. Standard errors (clustered at country level) in parentheses. † p < .10; * p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001