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Table 1 Dimensions and sub-components of Globalizationa

From: How does globalization affect COVID-19 responses?

Dimension Sub-Component Examples of Data Points
Economic Trade Trade in goods and services, trade partner diversity, trade regulations, trade taxes, tariff rates, and number of trade agreements.
Financial Foreign direct investment, portfolio investment, international debt, reserves and income payments, investment restrictions, capital account openness, and international investment agreements.
Social Interpersonal International voice traffic, income transfers, international tourism, international students, migration, telephone subscriptions, freedom to visit, number of international airports.
Informational Used internet bandwidth, international patents, high technology exports, television access, and internet access and press freedom.
Cultural Trade in cultural goods and personal services, international trademarks, presence of McDonald’s and IKEA stores, gender parity, human capital, and civil liberties.
Political   Number of embassies, involvement in UN peace keeping missions, number of international non-government organizations, number of international inter-governmental organizations, international treaties, and treaty partner diversity.
  1. ahttps://ethz.ch/content/dam/ethz/special-interest/dual/kof-dam/documents/Globalization/2019/KOFGI_2019_variables.pdf