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Table 4 The hierarchical linear regression analysis of independent variables correlated to scores of anxiety and depression in ASD and TD family

From: The relationship between 2019-nCoV and psychological distress among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder

  Anxiety
ASD family (n = 1764)
Anxiety
TD family (n = 4962)
Depression
ASD family (n = 1764)
Depression
TD family (n = 4962)
B (95%CI) β P B (95%CI) β P B (95%CI) β P B (95%CI) β P
Model 1
 Province .242(−.280 ~ .763) .021 .364 .667(.409 ~ .946) .071 <.001 −.504(−1.155 ~ .146) −.032 .129 .264(−.097 ~ .626) .019 .151
 Parents’ gender .660(−.356 ~ 1.675) .025 .203 .067(−.443 ~ .576) −.003 .798 .687(−.580 ~ 1.954) .019 .288 1.179(.494 ~ 1.864) .038 .001
 Parents’ age −.307(−.921 ~ .307) −.022 .327 −.501(−.810 ~ −.192) −.042 .001 −.380(−1.146 ~ .386) −.020 .331 −1.006(− 1.421 ~ −.590) −.058 <.001
 Parents’ health status 2.877 (1.532 ~ 4.221) .079 <.001 2.449 (1.137 ~ 3.761) .043 <.001 2.302(.625 ~ 3.980) .046 .007 2.218(.453 ~ 3.983) .027 .014
 Parents’ education −.768(−1.253 ~ −.283) −.065 .002 −.325(−.582 ~ −.068) −.035 .013 −.705(− 1.310 ~ −.100) −.043 .022 −.512(−.858 ~ −.166) −.038 .004
 Parents’ occupation −.306(−.670 ~ .059) −.031 .100 .105(−.082 ~ .292) .013 .272 .100(−.355 ~ .555) .008 .665 .193(−.059 ~ .445) .017 .134
 Child’s gender −.689(−1.445 ~ .067) −.033 .074 −.188(−.546 ~ .169) −.012 .302 −1.030(− 1.973 ~ −.086) −.036 .032 −.278(−.759 ~ .203) −.012 .256
 Child’s age .324(−.162 ~ .810) .031 .191 .486(.200 ~ .772) .049 .001 −.162(−.768 ~ .445) −.011 .601 .511(.126 ~ .896) .036 .009
 Only child in the family .280(−.451 ~ 1.011) .015 .452 .412(.014 ~ .810) .027 .042 .172(−.740 ~ 1.084) .007 .712 .711(.176 ~ 1.246) .032 .009
 Parents’ marital status −.258(−1.681 ~ 1.103) −.007 .710 −.203(− 1.083 ~ .678) −.005 .651 .079(−1.168 ~ 1.776) −.002 .927 .210(−.974 ~ 1.395) −.004 .728
 Family income .011(−.307 ~ .286) −.002 .944 −.278(−.430 ~ −.126) −.050 <.001 .220(−.150 ~ .590) .023 .244 −.412(−.617 ~ −.208) −.051 <.001
R2 .068    .048    .072    .071   
ΔR2 .068    .048    .072    .071   
Model 2
 Resilience total −.106(−.131 ~ −.080) −.211 <.001 −.072(−.086 ~ −.058) −.166 <.001 −.225(−.256 ~ −.193) −.343 <.001 −.194(−.213 ~ −.175) −.313 <.001
 Positive coping −.200(−.272 ~ −.129) −.151 <.001 −.149(−.189 ~ −.110) −.127 <.001 −.387(−.476 ~ −.297) −.213 <.001 −.306(−.358 ~ −.253) −.180 <.001
 Negative coping .333(.260 ~ .406) .175 <.001 .276(.237 ~ .314) .174 <.001 .461(.370 ~ .552) .178 <.001 .444(.392 ~ .496) .194 <.001
R2 .288    .198    .426    .347   
ΔR2 .220    .150    .353    .276   
Model 3
 Relationship changes .343(−.321 ~ 1.007) .019 .311 .635(.275 ~ .995) .041 .001 1.139(.311 ~ 1.967) −.046 .007 .854(.396 ~ 1.338) .038 .001
 Physical Exercise changes −.638(− 1.159 ~ −.116) −.046 .017 −.110(−.369 ~ .149) −.010 .404 −.689(− 1.340 ~ −.039) .036 .038 −.359(−.708 ~ −.011) −.023 .043
 Dietary changes 1.706 (1.101 ~ 2.311) .109 <.001 .653(.342 ~ .965) .051 <.001 2.843 (2.088 ~ 3.598) .133 <.001 1.295(.876 ~ 1.715) .070 <.001
 Income changes .415(−.092 ~ .922) .034 .109 .159(−.113 ~ .431) .016 .252 .875(.243 ~ 1.508) .053 .007 .437(.072 ~ .803) .030 .019
 Psychological stress 2.884 (2.568 ~ 3.200) .359 <.001 2.395 (2.227 ~ 2.564) .351 <.001 2.890 (2.469 ~ 3.285) .263 <.001 2.308 (2.081 ~ 2.534) .235 <.001
F 68.610   <.001 125.138   <.001 100.843   <.001 182.347   <.001
R2 .428    .325    .523    .412   
ΔR2 .139    .127    .098    .065   
  1. Bold = P < 0.001, ASD autism spectrum disorder, TD typically developing, CI confidence interval