Skip to main content

Table 5 Risk and protective factors in three populations (mostly frequently reported factors)

From: Mental burden and its risk and protective factors during the early phase of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: systematic review and meta-analyses

  Risk factorsa Protective factorsb
General population - Mental disorder/or symptoms [4449515258646974788283116132135]1)
- Worries about relatives or oneself [51576466747580898283]1 [48]1,2
- Being female [4952636669727479828393]1 [vs 1x being male]
- Previous (chronic) medical disease [525563646985135]1
- Being a student [52576072146]1
- Personal/social worries about COVID-19 [518586145]1 [48]1,2
- Physical symptoms [52668085132]1
- Reduced perceived health [50578085132]1
- No current relationship [578081146]1
- Current local outbreak severity [578893141]1
- History of stressful situations [525863147]1
- Vulnerability to COVID-19 [5385146]1
- Health profession [66, 81141]1
- Own or close person’s quarantine [576285]1
- Older age [49526365667991140147]1
- Good economic situation [527988140146]1 [48]1,2
- Satisfaction with/level of information on COVID-19 [454952858893]1
- Not being single [ 668088,86]1
- Higher education [505266146]1
- Social support [52, 140]1 [48]1,2
- Being male [546585]1
Healthcare workers - Mental disorder/or symptoms [97115116119122]1
- Being female [98110119121]1
- Concern about infection with COVID-19 [103109120121]1
- Exposure to COVID-19 patients [94110115119]1
- Current local COVID-19 severity [94118141107]1
- Older age [98110]1
Patients - (Suspected) COVID-19 [42131143]1
- Inflammatory markers in blood [42131]1
- Physical symptoms [132]1
- Higher education [127]1,3
- Good economic situation [127]1,3
- Higher lymphocyte ratio in blood [42]1
- Concomitant medical diseases [135]1
  1. a most frequently reported risk factors: general population: factor was reported as statistically significant risk factor in at least k = 3 studies; healthcare workers: factor reported in at least k = 4 studies; patients: factor reported in at least k = 2 studies
  2. b most frequently reported protective factors: general population: factor was reported as statistically significant protective factor in at least k = 3 studies; healthcare workers: factor reported in at least k = 2 studies (limited number of studies reporting protective factors in this group); patients: factor reported in k = 1 study (limited number of studies reporting protective factors in this group)