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Table 3 Results of main and sensitivity analyses in three populations

From: Mental burden and its risk and protective factors during the early phase of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: systematic review and meta-analyses

Outcome Studies (samples) N (pandemic) N (comp.) Standardized mean difference (95% CI) I2 95% prediction intervala
Main analyses
General population
 Anxiety 23 (26) 49,746 132,145 0.40 (0.15–0.65) 99% − 0.87–1.67
 Depression 25 (28) 60,213 183,747 0.67 (0.07–1.27) 100% −2.02–3.36
 Stress 11 (13) 11,600 67,386 0.10 (−0.30–0.50) 100% −1.39–1.60
 Sleep-related symptoms 4 (4) 3332 7635 0.74 (−1.47–2.96) 100% −3.68–5.17
Healthcare workers
 Anxiety 13 (14) 5508 22,204 −0.08 (−0.66–0.49) 99% −1.75–1.58
 Depression 7 (8) 2226 4605 −0.16 (− 0.59–0.26) 97% −1.41–1.09
 Stress 3 (3) 1570 2454 0.49 (−0.60–1.57) 99% /
 Sleep-related symptoms 4 (5) 554 20,024 0.83 (−0.14–1.81) 99% −1.54–3.21
Patients
 Anxiety 6 (6) 1845 12,458 0.31 (−0.07, 0.69) 93% −1.08–1.69
 Depression 7 (7) 2138 24,444 0.48 (−0.08–1.04) 98% −1.58–2.53
 Stress 4 (4) 435 10,061 −0.10 (− 0.81–0.61) 98% −3.54–3.34
 Sleep-related symptoms 2 (2) 127 298 −0.61 (−1.75–0.54) 96% /
Sensitivity analysis – Quality of included pandemic studies (ie, exclusion of poor-quality studies)
General population
 Anxiety 16 (17) 38,323 81,350 0.53 (0.19–0.86) 100% −0.90–1.95
 Depression 18 (19) 48,790 136,884 0.83 (0.09–1.57) 100% −2.17–3.82
 Stress 7 (8) 9110 43,747 0.33 (−0.19–0.84) 100% −1.20–1.85
 Sleep-related symptoms 3 (3) 2659 6622 0.80 (−1.34–2.94) 100% /
Healthcare workers
 Anxiety 4 (4) 1655 4124 −0.18 (−0.78–0.41) 97% −1.30–0.94
 Depression 4 (4) 1655 2356 0.03 (−0.42–0.47) 90% −0.73–0.79
 Stress 2 (2) 1376 1872 −0.05 (− 0.37–0.26) 95% /
 Sleep-related symptoms 1 (1) 123 4951 −0.03 (− 0.21–0.15) / /
Patients
 Anxiety 3 (3) 1461 11,116 0.45 (−0.10–1.01) 92% /
 Depression 3 (3) 1461 21,934 0.21 (−1.08–1.49) 99% /
 Stress 1 (1) 51 51 0.18 (−0.21–0.57) / /
 Sleep-related symptoms 1 (1) 51 207 −0.03 (− 0.33–0.28) / /
Sensitivity analysis – Level of comparability between included pandemic studies and comparative studies (ie, exclusion of level-3 and level-4 studies)
General population
 Anxiety 12 (13) 38,461 32,698 0.40 (0.06–0.74) 99% −0.77–1.57
 Depression 14 (15) 38,259 78,619 0.77 (−0.23–1.77) 100% −2.72–4.25
 Stress 7 (8) 8624 12,739 −0.15 (− 0.76–0.46) 99% −1.84–1.53
 Sleep-related symptoms 2 (2) 2550 5609 1.54 (−1.18–4.27) 100% /
Healthcare workers
 Anxiety 7 (8) 3147 9511 −0.54 (−1.23–0.15) 99% −2.11–1.03
 Depression 4 (5) 546 2576 −0.38 (−1.56–0.79) 98% −2.60–1.84
 Stress / / / / / /
 Sleep-related symptoms 3 (4) 423 19,804 1.01 (−0.17–2.18) 99% −1.61–3.63
Patients
 Anxiety 4 (4) 1616 3184 0.23 (−0.33–0.79) 92% −2.47–2.93
 Depression 4 (4) 1704 3205 0 (−0.56–0.56) 93% −2.69–2.70
 Stress 2 (2) 127 217 0.15 (−0.08–0.37) 0% /
 Sleep-related symptoms 2 (2) 127 298 −0.61 (−1.75–0.54) 96% /
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, comp. comparative studies, I2 heterogeneity, N sample size, pandemic included pandemic studies
  2. a 95% prediction interval only calculated for meta-analyses with at least k = 4 studies