Skip to main content

Table 1 Study characteristics of included main studies

From: Mental burden and its risk and protective factors during the early phase of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: systematic review and meta-analyses

Study Study design Country Sample size; female: No. (%); age: mean (SD) or alternative information on age (eg, mode) Subgroups Survey period Assessed Outcomes Instruments or scales
General Population
 Ahmad et al. (2020) [43]1 CS, OBS Iraq (Kurdistan) 516; 222 (43%); NA (mode: 18–35 years [65.1%]) NA NA Anxiety and fear Binary single itema
 Bacon et al. (2020) [44]1 CS, OBS United Kingdom 202; 127 (62.9%), 1 diverse; 33.79 (12.48) NA March 18–19, 2020 Anxiety and fear GAD-7
Depressive symptoms BDI-II
 Bäuerle et al. (2020) [45]1, Teufel et al. (2020) [46]1 CS, OBS Germany 15,037; 10,633 (70.7%), NA (mode: 25–34 years [24.8%]) NA March 10–May 5, 2020 Anxiety and fear GAD-7, single item 7-P LSa
Depressive symptoms PHQ-2
Psychological Distress DT
 Buzzi et al. (2020) [47]1 CS, OBS Italy 2064; NA; NA 100% adolescents March 2020 Anxiety and fear 4-P LSa
 Cao et al. (2020) [48]1 CS, OBS China 7143; 4975 (69.7%); NA NA NA Anxiety and fear GAD-7
 Chang et al. (2020) [49]1 CS, OBS China 3881; 2447 (63.1%); 20.00 (NA); P25=19.00, P75=22.00] 100% studentsb; medical students (n = 3359) January 31, 2019–February 3, 2020 Anxiety and fear GAD-7
Depressive symptoms PHQ-9
 Gao J et al. (2020) [50]1 CS, OBS China 4872; 3267 (67.7%); 32.3 (10.0) NA January 31–February 02, 2020 Anxiety and fear GAD-7
Depressive symptoms WHO-5c
 Germani et al. (2020) [51]1 CS, OBS Italy 1011; 720 (71.2%); 24.2 (3.6) 100% age between 18 and 29 years March 17–24, 2020 Anxiety and fear STAI-Y
Stress PSS
Other Outcomes SDQ
 González–Sanguino et al. (2020) [52]1 CS, OBS Spain 3480; 2610 (75%); 37–92 (NA) NA March 21–28, 2020 Anxiety and fear GAD-2
Depressive symptoms PHQ-2
PTSS PCL-C-2
Other outcomes FACIT-Sp12, MSPSS, SCS
 Harper et al. (2020) [53]1 CS, OBS UK 324; 162 (50%); 34–32 (11.71) NA March 27–28, 2020 Anxiety and fear FCV-19S, PROMIS-SF Anxiety
Depressive symptoms PROMIS-SF Depression
Other outcomes WHOQOL-BREF
 Jahanshahi et al. (2020) [54]1 CS, OBS Iran 1058; 569 (53–8%); NA (mode: 26–35 years) NA March 25–28, 2020 Psychological distress CPDI
 Lauri Korajlija et al. (2020) [55]1 CS (repeated), OBS Croatia sample 1: 888; 738d (83–1%); 31.3 (10.45)
sample 2: 966; 732d (75.8%); 40 (11.94)
NA 1st period: February 24–NA
2nd period: March 19–NA
Anxiety and fear 11-items 5-P LS (based on Swine Flu Anxiety Items, Wheaton et al. 2012)a
 Lee SA et al. (2020) [56]1 CS, OBS USA 398; 191 (49%); 35.91 (11.73) NA March 23–24, 2020 Anxiety and fear 2 single items 5-P LSa
Other outcomes Passive suicidal ideation (single item 5-P LS)a
 Lei et al. (2020) [57]1 CS, OBS China 1593; 976 (61.3%); 32.3 (9.8) ‘affected group’: quarantined / relatives quarantined (n = 420)b February 04–10, 2020 Anxiety and fear SAS
Depressive symptoms SDS
 Li Y et al. (2020) [58]1 CS (part of longitudinal cohort study), OBS China 1442; 891d (61.8%); NA (K-6 < 5: 20.0 [1.5]; K-6 ≥ 5: 20.0 [1.6]) medical students (n = 764), nursing students (n = 211), medical technology students (n = 467) February 7–13, 2020 PTSS IES-R
Psychological distress K-6
 Liu N et al. (2020) [59]1,2 CS, OBS China 285; 155 (54.4%); NA (47.7% < 35) NA January 30– February 08, 2020 PTSS PCL-5
 Liu S et al. (2020) [60]1 CS, OBS China primary school: 209; 116 (56%d); NA
college: 198; 130 (62%); NA
primary school students, college students February–March, 2020 Anxiety and fear 3 items, 4-P LSa
Other outcomes SSS
 Lopez et al. (2020) [61]1 CS, OBS Spain 878; 544d (62%) or 636 (72%d), data in text and Table 1 inconsistent; NA (mode: 60–70 years [71%d]) 100% community-dwelling older adults;
age 60–70 (n = 626); age 71–80 (n = 252)
NA Anxiety and fear a
Other outcomes BRCS, Ryff’s PWB (subscales for personal growth and purpose in life)
 Ma et al. (2020) [62]1 CS, OBS China 123; 71d (57.7%d); 37.4 (10.6) 100% isolated peopleb January 2020 Anxiety and fear DASS-21 Anxiety
Depressive symptoms DASS-21 Depression
Stress DASS-21 Stress
Sleep-related symptoms PSQI
Other outcomes SF-36
 Mazza et al. (2020) [63]1 CS, OBS Italy 2766; 1982 (71.7%); 32.94 (13.2) NA March 18–22, 2020 Anxiety and fear DASS-21 Anxiety
Depressive symptoms DASS-21 Depression
Stress DASS-21 Stress
 McKay et al. (2020) [64]1 CS, OBS China 908; 752 (82.8%); 40.37 (9.27) NA February 24–March 15, 2020 Anxiety and fear CoVGAD-7, DASS-21 Anxiety
Depressive symptoms DASS-21 Depression
 Moccia et al. (2020) [65]1 CS, OBS Italy 500; 298 (59.6); NA (mode: 28–37 years, n = 129) NA April 10–13, 2020 Psychological distress K-10
Other outcomes TEMPS-A
 Odriozola-González et al. (2020) [66]1 CS, OBS Spain 2530; 1672 (66.1%); 27.9 (12.4) students (n = 1944); administrative staff (n = 247); faculty members and academic staff (n = 339)b March 28–April 3, 2020 Anxiety and fear DASS-21 Anxiety
Depressive symptoms DASS-21 Depression
Stress DASS-21 Stress
PTSS IES
 Olagoke et al. (2020) [146]1 CS, OBS USA 501; 277 (55.29%); 32.44 (11.94) NA March 25, 2020–NA Depressive symptoms PHQ-2
Other outcomes Perceived self-efficacy (Ajzen 2002)
 Ozamiz-Etxebarria et al. (2020) [68]1 CS, OBS Spain 976; 792 (81.1%); NA (mode: 18–25 years [56.5%]) NA March 11–15, 2020 Anxiety and fear DASS-21 Anxiety
Depressive symptoms DASS-21 Depression
Stress DASS-21 Stress
 Özdin et al. (2020) [69]1 CS, OBS Turkey 343; 169 (49.2%); 37.2 (10.3) NA April 14–16, 2020 Anxiety and fear HAI
Depressive symptoms HADS
 Perez–Fuentes et al. (2020) [70]1 CS, OBS Spain 1014; 681 (67.2%); 40.87 (12.42) NA March 18–23, 2020 Depressive symptoms BIP-Q5
 Qiu et al. (2020) [41]1 CS, OBS China, Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan 52,730; 34,131 (64.7%) NA January 31–February 2, 2020 Psychological distress CPDI
 Ren et al. (2020) [71]1 CS, OBS China 1172; NA; NA NA February 14–March 29, 2020 Anxiety and fear GAD-7
Depressive symptoms PHQ-9
Stress PSS-10
Sleep-related symptoms ISI
PTSS PCL-5
Other outcomes MINI suicidality module
 Reznik et al. (2020) [72]1 CS, OBS Russia & Belarus 850; 622 (73.2%); 34.8 (13.0) NA after March 27, 2020 Anxiety and fear FCV-19S
 Roy et al. (2020) [73]1,2 CS, OBS India 662; 339 (51.2%); 29.09 (8.83) NA March 22–24, 2020 Anxiety and fear 18 items 5-P LSa
 Sakib et al. (2020) [74]1 CS, OBS Bangladesh 8550; 3760 (44%); 26.5 (9.1) NA April 1–10, 2020 Anxiety and fear FCV-19S
Depressive symptoms PHQ-9
 Satici et al. (2020) [75]1 CS, OBS Turkey 1304; 917 (70.3%); 29.5 (10.5) NA NA Anxiety and fear DASS-21 Anxiety, FCV-19S
Depressive symptoms DASS-21 Depression
Stress DASS-21 Stress
 Shammi et al. (2020) [76]1 CS, OBS Bangladesh 1066; 405 (38.5%); 27.80 (10.05) NA March 28–30, 2020 Psychological distress COVID-19 related mental distress (5 items 5-P LS)a
 Shevlin et al. (2020) [77]1 CS, OBS UK 2025; 1047 (51.9%); 45.4 (15.9) NA March 23–28, 2020 Anxiety and fear GAD-7, VAS on COVID-19 anxiety
Other outcomes PHQ-15
 Soraci et al. (2020) [78]1 CS, OBS Italy 249; 229 (92%); 34.50 (12.21) NA March 18–21, 2020 Anxiety and fear FCV-19S, HADS
 Sutin et al. (2020) [147]1 CS, OBS USA 2094; 1024 (48.9%)d; 51.03 (16.58) overweight (n = 706); obesity (n = 587) mid–March, 2020 Anxiety and fear 13 items 5-P LSa
 Tan W et al. (2020) [80]1 CS, OBS China 673; 172d (25.6%d); 30.8 (7.4) NA February 24–252,020 Anxiety and fear DASS-21 Anxiety
Depressive symptoms DASS-21 Depression
Stress DASS-21 Stress
Sleep-related symptoms ISI
PTSS IES-R
 Tian et al. (2020) [81]1 CS, OBS China 1060; 511 (48.2%); 35.01 (12.8) HCW (n = 42), students (n = 330) January 31–February 02, 2020 Anxiety and fear SCL-90 Anxiety
Depressive symptoms SCL-90 Depression
Psychological distress SCL-90 GSI
Other outcomes SCL-90 subscales
 Tsipropoulou et al. (2020) [82]1 CS, OBS Greece 2970; 2153 (72.5%); NA (mode: 18–30 years [52%]) NA NA Anxiety and fear FCV-19S, GAD-7
Depressive symptoms PHQ-9
 Tull et al. (2020) [79]1 CS, OBS USA 500; 235d (47%); 40 (11.6) NA March 27–April 5, 2020 Anxiety and fear DASS-21 Anxiety, SHAI
Depressive symptoms DASS-21 Depression
Stress DASS-21 Stress
 Voitsidis et al. (2020) [83]1 CS, OBS Greece 2363; 1800 (76.2%); NA (mode: 18–30 years [55%]) NA April 10–13, 2020 Anxiety and fear a
Depressive symptoms PHQ-2
Sleep-related symptoms AIS
Other outcomes IUS-12, JGLS
 Wang C et al. (2020a) [84]1,2, Wang C et al. (2020b) [85]1 2 CS (repeated), OBS China 1738 not counting participants in both surveys; 333 in both
1st survey: 1210; 814d or 878d (67.3%); NA (mode: 21.4–30.8 years [53.1%])
2nd survey: 861; 646d (75%); NA (mode: 21.4–30.8 years [46.5%])
NA January 31–February 2, 2020 and February 28–March 1, 2020 Anxiety and fear DASS-21 Anxiety
Depressive symptoms DASS-21 Depression
Stress DASS-21 Stress
PTSS IES-R
 Wang H et al. (2020) [86]1 CS, OBS China 1599; 1068 (66.8%); 33.9 (12.3) NA February 1–4, 2020 Psychological distress K-6
 Wang Y et al. (2020) [87]1,2 CS, OBS China 600; 333 (55.5%); 34 (12) NA February 6–9, 2020 Anxiety SAS
Depressive symptoms SDS
 Yang H et al. (2020) [88]1 CS (repeated), OBS China during COVID-19: 3000; 1500d (50%); 34.7 (NA) NA end of December 2019 and mid–February, 2020 Other outcomes Emotional well-being (Kahneman and Deaton, 2010)
 Yuan R et al. (2020) [89]1 CS, OBS China parents of children hospitalised during the epidemic (EH): 50; 31 (62%d); 36.80 (5.20) parents of children hospitalised during the non-epidemic period (NEH): 50; 26 (52%d); 37.22 (5.40) EH (n = 50)b, NEH (n = 50)b NA Anxiety HADS Anxiety, VDAS
Depressive symptoms HADS Depression
Other Outcomes SF-36
 Zhang SX et al. (2020a) [90]1; Zhang SX et al. (2020b) [91]1 CS, OBS China 369; 165 (44.7%); 36.6 (10.5) NA February 20–21, 2020 Psychological Distress K6
Other outcomes SF12, SWLS
 Zhang Y et al. (2020) [92]1,2 CS, OBS China 263; 157 (60%); 37.7 (14.0) NA January 28–February 05, 2020 PTSS IES
 Zhou SJ et al. (2020) [93]1 CS, OBS China 8079; 4326 (53.5%); NA (median: 16, minimum 12, maximum 18 years) 100% senior high school studentsb March 8–15, 2020 Anxiety GAD-7
Depressive symptoms PHQ-9
Healthcare workers
 Abdessater et al. (2020) [94]1 CS, OBS France 275; 91d (33%) or 83d (30%), ambiguous data; 29.5 (0.47) 100% urologists March 27–30, 2020 Stress a
 Ahmed et al. (2020) [95]1 CS, OBS multinational (Pakistan > Saudi Arabia > others) 650; 490 (75%); NA (mode: 20–30 years [54%]) 100% dentists March 10–17, 2020 Anxiety 8 binary itemsa
 Alhaj et al. (2020) [96]1 CS, OBS multinational (Canada, USA, others) 52; 14 (27%); NA (mode: < 30 years [69%]) 100% surgeons April 14–28, 2020 Psychological distress Affection of mental health (binary single item)a
 Amerio et al. (2020) [97]1 CS, OBS Italy 131; 63 (48.1%); 52.3 (12.2) 100% physicians (general practitioners) March 15–April 15, 2020 Anxiety GAD-7
Depressive symptoms PHQ-9
Sleep-related symptoms ISI
Other outcomes SF-12
 Badahdah et al. (2020) [98]1 CS, OBS Oman 194; 116d (60%); 40.72 (8.53) 100% physicians early April 2020 Anxiety GAD-7
Stress PSS-10
Other outcomes WHO-5c
 Bohlken et al. (2020) [99]1 CS, OBS Germany 396; NA; 165 (42%); 56.9 (7.6) 100% physicians April 1–6, 2020 Anxiety and fear Single items 5-P LSa
Sleep disorders Single item 5-P LSa
 Cai H et al. (2020) [100]1,2 CS, OBS China 534; 367 (69%); 36.4 (16.18) physicians (n = 233), nurses (n = 248) January–March, 2020 Anxiety and fear Single items 4-P LSa
 Cai W et al. (2020) [101]1 CS, OBS China whole sample:
1521; 1149 (75.5%d); NA (mode: 18–30 years, [43.5%])
physicians (n = 511), nurses (n = 546) NA Anxiety and fear SCL-90 anxiety
Depressive symptoms SCL-90 depression
Psychological distress SCL-90 positive items
Other outcomes SCL-90 subscales, CD-RISC, SSRS
 Chew et al. (2020) [102]1 CS, OBS multinational (Singapore, India) 906; 583 (64.3%); NA (median [IQR]: 29 [25–35] years) physicians (n = 268), nurses (n = 355), allied healthcare professionals (n = 96), non-HCW (n = 187) February 19–April 17, 2020 Anxiety and fear DASS-21 anxiety
Depressive symptoms DASS-21 depression
Stress DASS-21 stress
Sleep-related symptoms Single item 4-P LSa
PTSS IES-R
 Consolo et al. (2020) [103]1 CS, OBS Italy 356; 141 (39.6%); NA (mode: 35–55 years [48.6%]) 100% dentists April 2–21, 2020 Anxiety and fear GAD-7
 Gan et al. (2020) [104]1 CS, OBS China 11,183; 10,811 (96.7%); NA (mode: 20–29 years) 100% nurses February 4–10, 2020 Anxiety and fear VAS on anxiety
Stress VAS on stress
 Huang JZ et al. (2020) [105]1,2 CS, OBS China 230; 187 (81.3%); NA (mode: 30–39 years [53%]) physicians (n = 70), nurses (n = 160) February 7–14, 2020 Anxiety and fear SAS
PTSS PTSD-SS
 Kang et al. (2020) [106]1,2 CS, OBS China 994; 850 (85.5%); NA (mode: 30–40 years [63.4%]) physicians (n = 183), nurses (n = 811) January 29–February 4, 2020 Anxiety and fear GAD-7e
Depressive symptoms PHQ-9e
Sleep-related symptoms ISIe
PTSS IES-Re
 Khusid et al. (2020) [107]1 CS, OBS USA 332; 117 (35%); 30.5 (2.6) 100% urologists April 7–11, 2020 Anxiety and fear 2 items 5-P LSa
Depressive symptoms 2 items 5-P LSa
 Lai et al. (2020) [18]1,2 CS, OBS China 1257; 964 (76.7%); NA (mode: 26–40 years [64.7%]) physicians (n = 493), nurses (n = 764) January 29–February 3, 2020 Anxiety and fear GAD-7
Depressive symptoms PHQ-9
Sleep-related symptoms ISI
PTSS IES
 Mo et al. (2020) [108]1,2 CS, OBS China 180; 162 (90%); 32.71 (6.52) NA end of February 2020 Anxiety and fear SAS
Stress SOS
 Pu et al. (2020) [109]1 CS, OBS China 867: 829 (95.6%d); 30.8 (7.1) 100% nurses NA Anxiety and fear SAS
Other outcomes TAF
 Rossi et al. (2020) [110]1 CS, OBS Italy 1379; 1064 (77.2%); 39.0 (6.0) physicians (n = 433), general practitioners (n = 86), nurses (n = 472) March 27–31, 2020 Anxiety and fear GAD-7
Depressive symptoms PHQ-9
Stress PSS
Sleep-related symptoms ISI
PTSS GPS–PTSD
 Sahu et al. (2020) [111]1 CS, OBS India 611; NA; NA (mode: 30–40 years, n = 192 [31·4%]) 100% orthopedic surgeons March 31–April 4, 2020 Stress Single-itema
 Shacham et al. (2020) [112]1 CS, OBS Israel 338; 198 (586%); 46.39 (11.2) dentists (n = 198), dental hygienists (n = 140d) March 30–April 10, 2020 Psychological distress K-6
 Suleiman et al. (2020) [113]1 CS, OBS Jordan 308; 113 (36.7%); 30.3 (5.8) 100% physicians March 23–27, 2020 Anxiety and fear Binary single itemsa
 Tan B et al. (2020) [114]1 CS, OBS Singapore 470; 321 (68.3%); NA (median: 31, IQR: 28–36 years) physicians (n = 135), nurses (n = 161), allied hospital personnel (n = 174) February 19–March 13, 2020 Anxiety and fear DASS-21 anxiety
Depressive symptoms DASS-21 depression
Stress DASS-21 stress
PTSS IES-R
 Wang S et al. (2020) [115]1 CS, OBS China 123; 111 (90%); 33.75 (8.41) 100% pediatricians;
physicians (n = 48), nurses (n = 75)
January 30–February 07, 2020 Anxiety and fear SAS
Depressive symptoms SDS
Sleep-related symptoms PSQI
 Wu K et al. (2020) [116]1 CS, OBS, controlled China experimental group: 60; 44 (73%); 33.5 (12.4)
comparison group: 60; 45 (75%) 33.8 (11.9)
COVID-19 hospital (n = 60), non-designated hospital = comparison group (n = 60) NA Anxiety and fear SAS, SCL-90 anxiety
Depressive symptoms SCL-90 depression, SDS
Sleep-related symptoms PSQI
PTSS PCL-C
Psychological distress SCL-90 total score
Other outcomes SCL-90 subscales
 Xiao et al. (2020a) [117]1,2 CS, OBS China 180; 129 (71.7%); 32.31 (4.88) physicians (n = 82), nurses (n = 98) January–February, 2020 Anxiety and fear SAS
Sleep-related symptoms PSQI
Other outcomes GSES, SASR, SSRS
 Xu J et al. (2020) [118]1 CS, OBS, controlled China outbreak period: 60; 38 (63.3%); 36.68 (9.67)
‘post-epidemic’: 60; 32 (53.3%); 35.77 (7.06)
100% surgeons January 28–February 29, 2020 and March 2–21, 2020 Anxiety and fear ‘Anxiety scale’, dream anxiety score
Depressive symptoms ‘Depression score’
Other outcomes SF-36
 Yin et al. (2020) [119]1 CS, OBS China 371; 228 (61.5%); 35.3 (9.5)
physicians: NA
nurses: NA
physicians (n = 67), nurses (n = 264) February 01–05, 2020 Sleep-related symptoms PSQI
PTSS PCL-5
 Zhang C et al. (2020) [120]1 CS, OBS China 1563; 1293 (83%d); NA (mode: 26–40 years, n = 495 [31.7%d])
physicians: NA
nurses: NA
physicians (n = 454), nurses (n = 984), administrative staff (n = 30), other medical staff (n = 95) January 29–February 03, 2020 Anxiety and fear GAD-7
Depressive symptoms PHQ-9
Sleep-related symptoms ISI
PTSS IES-R
 Zhang SX et al. (2020c) [121]1 CS, OBS Iran 304; 178 (58.6%); 35.1 (9.1) NA April 5–20, 2020 Anxiety and fear GAD-2d
Depressive symptoms PHQ-2d
Psychological distress K6
Other outcomes SF-12
 Zhu J et al. (2020) [122]1 CS, OBS China 156; 137 (83%); 34.16 (8.06)
physicians: 79; 51d (65%d)
physicians (n = 79), nurses (n = 86) February 1–29, 2020 Anxiety and fear SAS
Depressive symptoms SDS
Patients
 Cai X et al. (2020) [123]1, Yuan B et al. (2020) [124]1 CS, OBS China 126; 66 (52.4%); 45.7 (14.0) 100% cured COVID-19 patients March 2–12, 2020 Anxiety and fear SAS
Depressive symptoms SDS
PTSS PTSD-SS
 Durankus et al. (2020) [125]1 CS, OBS Turkey 260; 260 (100%); 29.6 (3.8) 100% pregnant women NA Anxiety and fear BAI
Depressive symptoms EPDS, BDI
Psychological distress Single item 11-P LSa
 Li X et al. (2020) [126]1 CS, OBS China 76; 35 (46%); 36 (15) suspected COVID-19 patients January 31–February 22, 2020 Anxiety and fear HAMA
Depressive symptoms HAMD
 Liu X et al. (2020a) [42]1 CS, OBS China COVID-19 suspected patients:
21; 12 (57.1%); 43.1 (2.6):
not COVID-19 suspected patients: 30; 15 (50%); 45.0 (9.2)
100% schizophrenia patients; COVID-19 suspected patients (n = 21), not COVID-19 suspected patients (n = 30) January 30–February 21, 2020 Anxiety and fear HAMA
Depressive symptoms HAMD
Stress PSS
Sleep-related symptoms PSQI
Other outcomes PANSS
 Wu Y et al. (2020) [127]1,3 CS, OBS, controlled China 4124; 4124 (100%d), NA (median: 30, range = 17–32 years) 100% pregnant women;
before (group 1: n = 2839)/after (group 2: n = 1284) January 20, 2020
January 1–February 9, 2020 Anxiety and fear EPDS-3A
Depressive symptoms EPDS
 Xu H et al. (2020) [128]1 CS, OBS China 350; 199 (54.1%); NA (mode: 40–60 years [51%]) 100% lung cancer patients March 4–6, 2020 Depressive symptoms Single itema
Sleep-related symptoms Single itema
 Yassa et al. (2020) [129]1 CS, OBS Turkey 172; 172 (100%); 27.5 (5.3) 100% pregnant women ten days after first confirmed COVID-19 death in Turkey Anxiety and fear Single ternary itema
Mixed groups
 Büntzel et al. (2020) [130]1 CS, OBS Germany 193; NA; NA (mode: > 60 years) physicians (n = 47), cancer patients (n = 146) April 16–19, 2020 Anxiety and fear Single itema
Stress Single itema
 Guo et al. (2020) [131]1 CS, OBS, controlled China P:103; 44 (42.7%); 42.5 (12.5);
control (GP): 103; 49 (47.6%); 41.5 (13.1)
COVID-19 patients (n = 103), not infected control group (n = 103) February 10–28, 2020 Anxiety and fear GAD-7
Depressive symptoms PHQ-9
Stress PSS-10
PTSS PCL-5
 Hao F et al. (2020) [132]1 CS, OBS, controlled China P: 76; 51 (37.1%); 32.8 (11.8);
control (GP): 109; 68 (62.4%); 33.1 (11.2)
psychiatric patients (n = 76), control group (n = 109) February 19–22, 2020 Anxiety and fear DASS-21 anxiety
Depressive symptoms DASS-21 depression
Stress DASS-21 stress
Sleep-related symptoms ISI
PTSS IES-R
 Hao X et al. (2020) [133]1 CS, OBS, controlled China P: 252; 132d (52.4%d); 29.3 (11.6);
control (GP): 252; 132d (52.4%d); 29.4 (11.5)
epilepsy patients (n = 252), control group (n = 252) February 1–29, 2020 Psychological distress K-6
 Huang Y et al. (2020) [134]1,2 CS, OBS China 7236; 3952 (54.6%); 35.3 (5.6) GP (n = 4986), HCW (n = 2250) February 3–17, 2020 Anxiety and fear GAD-7
Depressive symptoms CES-D
Sleep-related symptoms PSQI
 Iasevoli et al. (2020) [135]1 CS, OBS, controlled Italy 461; NA; NA
P: 205; NA; NA
caregivers: 51; NA; NA
control (GP): 205; NA; NA
psychiatric patients (n = 205), caregivers (n = 51), non-psychiatric persons (n = 205) April 13–17, 2020 Anxiety and fear GAD-7
Depressive symptoms PHQ-9
Stress PSS
Other outcomes SPEQ
 Jin YH et al. (2020) [136]1 CS, OBS China 103; 64 (62.1%); NA (median [IQR]: 35 [14.0]) 100% infected with SARS-CoV-2; physicians, nurses February 15–29, 2020 Anxiety and fear Single item multiple choicea
 Ko et al. (2020) [137]1 CS, OBS Taiwan 1904; 1282 (67.3%); 38.0 (10.8) GP (n = NA), HCW (n = NA) April 10–20, 2020 Other outcomes Psychological wellbeing (single item 5-P LS)a
 Li Z et al. (2020) [138]1,2 CS, OBS China 740; 128 (59.8%); 25 (IQR: 22–38.3 years] GP (n = 214), HCW (n = 526) February 17–21, 2020 PTSS Vicarious Traumatization Questionnaire
 Lu W et al. (2020) [139]1,2 CS, OBS China 2299; 1785 (77.6%); NA (78% < 40 years) HCW (n = 2042), GP (n = 257) February 25.26, 2020 Anxiety and fear HAMA, NRS on fear
Depressive symptoms HAMD
 Ni et al. (2020) [140]1 CS, OBS China total: 1791; NA; NA
GP: 1577; 1218 d (60.8%); NA (mode: 18–34 years [38.6%])
HCW: 214; 147d (68.8%); NA (mode: 18–34 years [58.9%])
GP (n = 1577), HCW (n = 214) February 18.24, 2020 Anxiety and fear GAD-2
Depressive symptoms PHQ-2
 Sanchez et al. (2020) [67]1 CS, OBS USA 1051; 0 (0%); 35 (15.83) 100% men who have sex with men; HIV-patients (n = 122) April 2–13, 2020 Anxiety and fear Single itema
Other outcomes Quality of life (single item)a
 Wu W et al. (2020) [141]1 CS, OBS China 4268; 2930d (68.7%d); NA
HCW: 2110; 1598d (76%d); NA
Students: 2158; 1332 (62%); NA
students (n = 2158), HCW (n = 2110) February 10–21, 2020 Anxiety and fear Single itema
Sleep-related symptoms Single itema
 Yuan S et al. (2020) [142]1,2 L, OBS China 939; 582 (61.98%); NA (mode: 18–39 years [71.5%]) HCW (n = 249), students (n = 312) 2 survey periods in February, 2020 Sleep-related symptoms PSQI
Other outcomes SRQ
 Zhang J et al. (2020) [143]1 CS, OBS China 205; 115 (56.1%d); NA (for infected: 46.9 [15.4]; for quarantined: 36.2 [10.9]; for general public: 29.6 [12.7]) P, infected (n = 57),
GP, quarantined (n = 50),
GP, general public (n = 98)
February 15–29, 2020 Anxiety and fear GAD-7
Depressive symptoms PHQ-9
 Zhang WR et al. (2020) [144]1,2 CS, OBS China 2182; 1401 (64.2%); NA (mode: 18–60 years [96.3%]) HCW (n = 927), GP (n = 1255) February 19–March 6, 2020 Anxiety and fear GAD-2
Depressive symptoms PHQ-2
Sleep-related symptoms ISI
Other outcomes SCL-90-R subscales
 Zhu S et al. (2020) [145]1 CS, OBS China 2279d; 1361 d; NA HCW (n = 858), GP (n = 1421) Feb 12–Mar 17, 2020 Anxiety and fear GAD-7
Depressive symptoms PHQ-9
Psychological distress SRQ-20
  1. Abbreviations: AIS Athens Insomnia Scale, BAI Beck Anxiety Inventory, BDI Beck Depression Inventory, BDI(−II) Beck Depression Inventory(−II), BIP-Q5 Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire 5, BRCS Brief Resilience Coping Scale, CD-RISC Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, CES-D Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CoVGAD-7 Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 for COVID-19 Anxiety, CPDI CoViD-19 Peritraumatic Distress Index, CS cross-sectional, DASS-21 Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, DT Distress Thermometer, EPDS Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, EPDS-3A Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-Anxiety subscale, FACIT-Sp12 Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale, FCV-19S Fear of COVID-19 scale, GAD-2(−7) Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-2(/−7), GP general population, GPS-PTSD Global Psychotrauma Scale-posttraumatic stress disorder subscale, GSES General Self-Efficacy Scale, GSI Global Severity Index, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HAI Health Anxiety Inventory, HAMA Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, HAMD Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, HCW healthcare workers, IES Impact of Event Scale, IES-R Impact of Event Scale-Revised, IQR interquartile range, ISI Insomnia Severity Index, IUS-12 Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-Short Form, JGLS De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale, K-6(/− 10) Kessler Psychological Distress Scale-6(/− 10), L longitudinal, MINI Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, MSPSS Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, NA not available, NRS Numeric Rating Scale, OBS observational, P patients, PANSS Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, PCL-5(−C) Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-5(/−Civilian Version), PHQ-2(/−4/−9/− 15) Patient Health Questionnaire-2(/−4/−9/− 15), PROMIS-SFs Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System short forms, PSQI Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PSS(− 10) Perceived Stress Scale(− 10), PTSD-SS Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Self-rating Scale, PTSS post-traumatic stress symptoms, Ryff’s PWB Ryff’s Psychological Wellbeing Scales, SAS Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, SASR Stanford Acute Stress Reaction, SCL-90 Symptom Checklist-90, SCS Self-Compassion Scale, SD standard deviation, SDQ Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, SDS Self-Rating Depression Scale, SF-12(/−36) Short Form 12 Health Survey, SHAI Short Health Anxiety Inventory, SOS Stress Overload Scale, SPEQ Specific Psychotic Experience Questionnaire, SRQ Stress Response Questionnaire, SRQ-20 20-item Self-Report Questionnaire, SSRS Social Support Rating Scale, SSS Somatic Symptom Scale, STAI-Y State Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y, SWLS Satisfaction With Life Scale, TAF Triage Assessment Form, TEMPS-A Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-Anxious, VAS Visual Analogue Scale, VDAS Van Dream Anxiety Scale, WHO-5 World Health Organization- Five Well-Being Index, WHOQOL-BREF abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life, 4−/5−/7−/11-P LS 4−/5−/6−/11-point Likert-scale
  2. a developed by study authors
  3. b included in main analyses for general population but considered separately in subgroup-analyses
  4. c in Gao J et al. WHO-5 is used to assess depressive symptoms, in Badahdah et al. it is used to assess psychological distress
  5. d not directly reported
  6. e k-means-clustering method for the 4 tools summarized to ‘mental health’