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Table 2 Regression analyses of PGD and PCBD

From: Who suffered most after deaths due to COVID-19? Prevalence and correlates of prolonged grief disorder in COVID-19 related bereaved adults

  PGD     PCBD    
Variable B (SE) 95% CI β t B (SE) 95% CI β t
Age −0.10 (0.07) − 0.25, 0.04 − 0.10 − 1.40 − 0.15 (0.09) − 0.33, 0.04 −0.11 − 1.55
Sex 0.52 (0.89) − 1.23, 2.27 0.03 0.58 0.99 (1.13) −1.24, 3.22 0.04 0.87
Educationa
 Senior high school 0.88 (2.19) −3.43, 5.19 0.03 0.40 −0.11 (2.79) −5.59, 5.37 − 0.003 − 0.39
 College −1.72 (2.05) − 5.75, 2.30 − 0.08 − 0.84 − 2.68 (2.61) − 7.80, 2.45 − 0.09 − 1.03
 Postgraduate −1.69 (2.99) −7.57, 4.19 − 0.03 − 0.57 −2.32 (3.81) −9.80, 5.16 −0.04 − 0.61
Religious beliefb 2.15 (1.87) − 1.53, 5.83 0.06 1.15 2.78 (2.38) −1.90, 7.47 0.06 1.17
Age of deceased −0.003 (0.05) −0.11, 0.10 − 0.01 −0.06 − 0.01 (0.07) −0.15, 0.12 − 0.02 −1.17
Time since loss in months 0.05 (0.25) −0.45, 0.55 0.01 0.18 0.11 (0.32) −0.52, 0.75 0.02 0.35
Cause of deathc 5.35 (2.45) 0.54, 10.05 0.10 2.19* 7.77 (3.12) 1.64, 13.89 0.11 2.49*
Role of deceasedd
 Partner 7.80 (2.32) 3.24, 12.37 0.38 3.36** 10.73 (2.95) 4.92, 16.54 0.41 3.63***
 Child 8.15 (3.62) 1.03, 15.26 0.20 2.25* 10.27 (4.61) 1.21, 19.32 0.19 2.23*
 Parent 5.49 (2.03) 1.49, 9.48 0.24 2.70** 8.39 (2.59) 3.30, 13.47 0.29 3.24**
 Grandparent 4.46 (2.43) −0.33, 9.24 0.17 1.83 6.62 (2.59) 0.53, 12.71 0.20 2.14*
 Friend 3.08 (2.34) −1.52, 7.68 0.12 1.32 4.84 (2.98) −1.01, 10.69 0.14 1.63
Unexpectedness of death −0.07 (0.39) −0.83, 0.70 − 0.009 −0.17 − 0.09 (0.49) − 1.06, 0.88 −0.009 − 0.19
Traumatic level of loss 1.71 (0.61) 0.52, 2.90 0.17 2.82** 2.23 (0.77) 0.71, 3.74 0.18 2.89**
Closeness with deceased 1.60 (0.64) 0.34, 2.86 0.14 2.50* 1.72 (0.81) 0.12, 3.32 0.12 2.11*
Conflict with deceased 0.57 (0.42) −0.26, 1.40 0.07 1.34 1.05 (0.54) −0.008, 2.11 0.10 1.95†
  1. Note. PGD Prolonged Grief Disorder, PCBD Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder, SE Standard Error. CI Confidence Interval
  2. a reference group: junior high school and below
  3. b reference group: no religious belief
  4. c reference group: COVID-19 related complication
  5. d reference group: a combined group of relative and other relationships
  6. p = 0.05, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001