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Table 1 Demographic and loss-related information (N = 422)

From: Who suffered most after deaths due to COVID-19? Prevalence and correlates of prolonged grief disorder in COVID-19 related bereaved adults

Variable M / n SD / %
Age 32.73 9.31
Sex
 Male 234 55.5%
 Female 188 44.5%
Education
 Junior secondary school and/or below 21 5.0%
 Senior secondary school 66 15.6%
 College 320 75.8%
 Postgraduate and/or above 15 3.6%
Religious belief
 No 395 93.6%
 Yesa 27 6.4%
Role of deceased
 Partner 139 32.9%
 Child 24 5.7%
 Parent 97 23.0%
 Grandparent 69 16.4%
 Relativeb 22 5.2%
 Friend 64 15.2%
 Otherc 7 1.7%
Age of deceased 47.81 21.55
Time since loss in months 5.10 1.72
Cause of death
 COVID-19 408 96.7%
 COVID-19 related complicationd 14 3.3%
Unexpectedness of death 3.67 1.23
Traumatic level of loss 3.86 0.97
Closeness with deceased 4.15 0.88
Conflict with deceased 1.76 1.11
PGD symptom levels 41.58 9.60
  < 6 months post-losse 41.37 9.61
  ≥ 6 months post-lossf 41.85 9.61
PCBD symptom levels 54.07 12.28
  < 6 months post-losse 53.64 12.36
  ≥ 6 months post-lossf 54.61 12.19
  1. Note. M Mean, SD Standard Deviation, PGD Prolonged Grief Disorder, PCBD Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder
  2. a Religious belief included Buddhism (n = 17), Taoism (n = 3), Catholicism (n = 3), Christianism (n = 3), and Islamism (n = 1)
  3. b Relative included uncle (n = 5), aunt (n = 4), cousin (n = 4), grandaunt (n = 3), granduncle (n = 1), great grandmother (n = 1), and not specified (n = 4)
  4. c Other relationship included colleagues (n = 4), acquaintance (n = 2), and not specified (n = 1)
  5. d COVID-19 related complication included heart disease (n = 2), fever (n = 2), acute respiratory distress syndrome (n = 1), asthma (n = 1), cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (n = 1), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 1), diabetes (n = 1), high blood pressure (n = 1), liver cancer (n = 1), lung cancer (n = 1), obesity (n = 1), and respiratory failure (n = 1)
  6. e n = 234
  7. f n = 188