Skip to main content

Table 4 Information from articles on the efficacy of different wastewater treatment systems to remove microbial agents

From: Effectiveness of wastewater treatment systems in removing microbial agents: a systematic review

Author/Year/RefSample SizeType of samples/CityTypes of wastewater treatment systemsMicrobial agentMicrobial agent removal rateCompliance with US-EPA Standard (Ref. [26, 27])
Hashemi et al., 2010 [28]17Municipal wastewater/EsfahanUV disinfection system including low pressure (LP)Total coliforms1000 MPN/100 mLYes
Fecal coliforms400 MPN/100 mLYes
Fecal streptococci400 MPN/100 mLYes
UV disinfection system including medium pressure (MP)Total coliforms1000 MPN/100 mLYes
Fecal coliforms400 MPN/100 mLYes
Fecal streptococci400 MPN/100 mLYes
LP + MPTotal coliforms1000 MPN/100 mLYes
Fecal coliforms400 MPN/100 mLYes
Fecal streptococci400 MPN/100 mLYes
Banejad et al., 2010 [29]12Domestic wastewater/HamedanFlocculation and coagulation with moringa peregrina seedsTotal coliforms97%Yes
Escherichia coli97%Yes
Derayat et al., 2011 [30]120Municipal wastewater/Kermanshah and GilangharbConventional activated sludgeCysts97.5%Yes
Parasite eggs98.3%Yes
Stabilization pond systemsCysts100%Yes
Parasite eggs100%Yes
Baghapour et al., 2013 [31]64Municipal wastewater/ShirazActivated sludgeTotal coliforms1291.11 ± 1165.88 MPN/100 mLNo
Fecal coliforms675.22 ± 1008.21 MPN/100 mLNo
Helminth egg73.61 ± 96.125 N/LNo
Safari et al., 2013 [32]7Municipal wastewater/Shahrak Gharb TehranTwo-stage fluidized bed reactor (FBR)Fecal coliforms (without chlorine addition)35–75%No
Fecal coliforms (with the chlorine addition)67–97%No
Navidjouy et al., 2014 [33]8Municipal treatment plants and slaughterhouse treatment plants/TehranActivated sludgeHelminth egg94.8–95.7%Yes
Protozoa (oo)cyst79.3–85.8%No
Karimi et al., 2014 [34]100Municipal wastewater/YazdWetlandsFecal coliforms1.13 × 1014 MPN/100No
Escherichia coli5.03 × 1012 MPN/100 mLNo
Aslani et al., 2014 [35]9Municipal wastewater/North of TehranActivated sludge effluentFecal coliforms5.5  ± 05 MPN/100 mLNo
Jamshidi et al., 2014 [36]70 LitDomestic wastewater/TehranAnaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) followed by Bio-rack wetland planted with Phragmites sp. and Typha sp.Total coliforms99%Yes
Nahavandi et al., 2015 [37]8Municipal treatment plants and slaughterhouse treatment plants/TehranActivated sludgeHelminth egg94.8–95.7%Yes
Protozoa (oo)cyst79.3–85.8%No
Ghoreishi et al., 2016 [38]9Municipal wastewater/Azerbaijan ProvinceExtended aeration activated sludge/TabrizTotal coliforms2.17 × 105 MPN/100 mLNo
Extended aeration activated sludge/MarandTotal coliforms1.34 × 106 MPN/100 mLNo
Extended aeration activated sludge/JolfaTotal coliforms1.82 × 106 MPN/100 mLNo
Activated sludge/AjabshirTotal coliforms4.53 × 105 MPN/100 mLNo
Extended aeration activated sludge/AharTotal coliforms2.25 × 103 MPN/100 mLNo
Extended aeration activated sludge/MianehTotal coliforms3.93 × 103 MPN/100 mLNo
Conventional activated sludge/MaraghehTotal coliforms3.02 × 104 MPN/100 mLNo
SBR/BostanabadTotal coliforms1.09 × 106 MPN/100 mLNo
Extended aeration activated sludge/SarabTotal coliforms2.02 × 103 MPN/100 mLNo
Mollaie Tavani et al., 2017 [39]16Hospital wastewater/BehshahrConventional activated sludgeTotal coliforms46 MPN/100 mLYes
Fecal coliforms4.75 MPN/100 mLYes
Sasani et al., 2017 [40]36Municipal wastewater/AhvazConventional activated sludgeTotal coliforms7.8 × 1012 MPN/100 mLNo
Choopan et al., 2018 [41]45Municipal wastewater/Torbat-heydariehActivated sludgeFecal coliforms200 MPN/100 mLYes
  1. *In compliance with the US-EPA standard, the results of studies within the US-EPA standard range were marked with Yes and the results of studies that exceeded the US-EPA standard were marked with No.