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Table 3 Personal and national characteristics of each country and participants

From: Analysis of personal and national factors that influence depression in individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic: a web-based cross-sectional survey

Category/source N(%)/M ± SD
Personal characteristics
Number of participants in each country
  South Korea 360(12.66)
  China 281(9.88)
  Japan 148(5.20)
  Philippines 288(10.13)
  Indonesia 554(19.48)
  Peru 386(13.57)
  Paraguay 197(6.93)
  Ethiopia 175(6.15)
  Democratic Republic of Congo 294(10.34)
Sex
  Male 881(32.84)
  Female 1802(67.16)
Marital status
  Not married 2346(87.44)
  Married 337(12.56)
Number of family members
  One-person household 248(9.24)
  2 334(12.45)
  3–5 1574(58.67)
  6 or more 527(19.64)
Experience of discrimination at the national level due to COVID-19
  No 1945(72.49)
  Yes 738(27.51)
Subjective health
  Very unhealthy 4(0.15)
  Unhealthy 21(0.78)
  Average 452(16.58)
  Healthy 1233(45.96)
  Very healthy 973(36.27)
Trust in hospitals
  Very distrustful 115(4.29)
  Distrustful 504(18.78)
  Trustful 1288(48.01)
  Very trustful 526(19.6)
  Unknown 250(9.32)
Private health insurance
  No 1238(43.53)
  Yes 1445(56.47)
Age
  Age (M±SD) 25.71 ± 8.55
Knowledge of COVID-19
  Total score for knowledge (M±SD) 5.05 ± 1.10
Practice of social prevention activities
  Social prevention activities Total score (M±SD) 9.84 ± 4.29
Practice of hygienic prevention activities
  Hygienic prevention Activities total score (M±SD) 18.28 ± 6.66
Level of Depression
  Sum of PHQ-9 Score(M±SD) 7.07 ± 6.12
National characteristics
Stringency index score
  Oxford Stringency Index 77.79 ± 12.30
  South Korea 77
  China 57
  Japan 56
  Philippines 93
  Indonesia 71
  Peru 92
  Paraguay 92
  Ethiopia 75
  Democratic Republic of Congo 81
Life expectancy
  World Bank 73.35 ± 6.69
  South Korea 82.63
  China 76.47
  Japan 84.10
  Philippines 70.95
  Indonesia 71.28
  Peru 76.29
  Paraguay 73.99
  Ethiopia 65.87
  Democratic Republic of Congo 60.03
Literacy rate
  Our World in Data 91.02 ± 12.63
  South Korea 97.96
  China 96.35
  Japan 99
  Philippines 96.61
  Indonesia 95.43
  Peru 94.37
  Paraguay 95.53
  Ethiopia 49.03
  Democratic Republic of Congo 77.22
Social capital
  Legatum Prosperity Index 53.01 ± 12.34
  South Korea 42.482
  China 57.248
  Japan 44.448
  Philippines 59.318
  Indonesia 73.431
  Peru 42.345
  Paraguay 53.697
  Ethiopia 46.814
  Democratic Republic of Congo 38.740
PPP (1 000 000 USD)
  World bank 3 850 000 ± 6 780 000
  South Korea 2 029 000
  China 23 160 000
  Japan 5 429 000
  Philippines 875 600
  Indonesia 3 243 000
  Peru 424 400
  Paraguay 68 330
  Ethiopia 200 200
  Democratic Republic of Congo 28 880
  1. PPP Purchasing Power Parity, N Number of cases, M Mean, SD Standard Deviation