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Table 1 Socio-demographical and clinical characteristics of the participants

From: Prevalence and correlates of fatigue and its association with quality of life among clinically stable older psychiatric patients during the COVID-19 outbreak: a cross-sectional study

Variable Total Fatigue No Fatigue Univariate analyses
(N = 1063) (N = 501) (N = 562)
N % N % N % χ2 df P
Male gender 347 32.6 157 31.3 190 33.8 0.74 1 0.391
Married 961 90.4 446 89.0 515 91.6 2.09 1 0.148
Rural residence 373 35.1 203 40.5 170 30.2 12.27 1 < 0.001
Have severe physical illness 190 17.9 104 20.8 86 15.3 5.37 1 0.020
Concerned about COVID-19 744 70.0 347 69.3 397 70.6 0.24 1 0.624
Frequent use of mass media during COVID-19 outbreak 215 20.2 99 19.8 116 20.6 0.13 1 0.721
Limited access to psychiatric services during COVID-19 outbreak 367 34.5 193 38.5 174 31.0 6.70 1 0.010
Poor treatment adherence during COVID-19 outbreak 365 34.3 187 37.3 178 31.7 3.75 1 0.053
Illness worsening during COVID-19 outbreak 564 53.1 345 68.9 219 39.0 95.04 1 < 0.001
Principal psychiatric diagnosis        13.17 1 < 0.001
 MDD 485 45.6 258 51.5 227 40.4    
 Other diagnoses b 578 54.4 143 48.5 335 59.6    
Variable Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD t/Z df P
Age (years) 62.80 9.44 62.41 9.48 63.15 9.40 −1.28 1061 0.202
Education (years) 7.96 4.03 7.51 4.04 8.37 3.98 −3.94 -a < 0.001
PHQ-9 total score 7.76 6.73 11.40 6.78 4.51 4.73 −17.28 - a < 0.001
ISI total score 8.93 6.36 11.84 6.11 6.34 5.40 −14.26 - a < 0.001
Pain total score 1.53 2.20 2.33 2.59 0.82 1.47 −9.78 - a < 0.001
Overall quality of life 6.26 1.56 5.69 1.55 6.77 1.38 −12.08 1061 < 0.001
  1. Bolded values: < 0.05; COVID-19 Coronavirus Disease 2019, MDD Major depressive disorder, PHQ-9 the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, ISI Insomnia Severity Index, SD Standard deviation. a Mann-Whitney U Test; b other diagnoses included bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, organic mental disorders, etc. P-P plots revealed that among the six continuous variables (e.g., age, education years, PHQ-9 total score, ISI total score, pain total score, and overall QOL), age and overall QOL scores were normally distributed but other continuous variables had skewed distributions