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Table 6 Factors associated with levels of fear of COVID-19 among the study population (based on FCV-19S score)

From: Factors associated with psychological distress, fear and coping strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia

Characteristics High (score 22–35), n(%) Low (score 7–21), n(%) Unadjusted analyses Adjusted analyses
p OR 95% CIs p AOR 95% CIs
Total study participants 175 374       
Age groups 162 339       
 18–29 years 22 (13.6) 75 (22.1)   1    1  
 30–59 years 131 (80.9) 233 (68.7) 0.014 1.92 1.14–3.23 0.011 2.29 1.21–4.35
 60+ years 9 (5.6) 31 (9.1) 0.982 0.99 0.41–2.39 0.551 1.37 0.49–3.84
Gender 174 374       
 Male 61 (35.1) 145 (38.8)   1    1  
 Female 113 (64.9) 229 (61.2) 0.404 1.17 0.81–1.71 0.052 1.56 1.00–2.45
Living status 174 371       
 Live without family members (on your own/shared house/others) 29 (16.7) 95 (25.6)   1    1  
 Live with family members (partner and/or children) 145 (83.3) 276 (74.4) 0.020 1.72 1.08–2.73 0.502 1.22 0.69–2.16
Born in Australia 175 374       
 No 127 (72.6) 200 (53.5)   1    1  
 Yes 48 (27.4) 174 (46.5) 0.000 0.43 0.29–0.64 0.000 0.35 0.21–0.58
Completed level of education 175 373       
 Grade 1–12 19 (10.9) 50 (13.4)   1    1  
 Trade/Certificate/Diploma 26 (14.9) 59 (15.8) 0.679 1.16 0.58–2.34 0.414 0.72 0.32–1.59
 Bachelor and above 130 (74.3) 264 (70.8) 0.372 1.30 0.74–2.29 0.129 0.58 0.29–1.17
Current employment condition 169 354       
 Unemployed/Home duties 28 (16.6) 35 (9.9)   1    1  
 Jobs affected by COVID-19 (lost job/working hours reduced/afraid of job loss) 40 (23.7) 42 (11.9) 0.604 1.19 0.62–2.30 0.517 1.28 0.6–2.69
 Have an income source (employed/Government benefits) 101 (59.8) 277 (78.2) 0.005 0.46 0.26–0.79 0.033 0.51 0.27–0.95
Perceived distress due to change of employment status 60 92       
 A little to none 6 (10.0) 31 (33.7)   1    1  
 Moderate to a great deal 54 (90.0) 61 (66.3) 0.002 4.57 1.77–11.8 0.011 4.14 1.39–12.4
Self-identification as a frontline or essential service worker 175 374       
 No 113 (64.6) 202 (54.0)   1    1  
 Yes 62 (35.4) 172 (46.0) 0.020 0.64 0.44–0.93 0.065 0.66 0.43–1.03
COVID-19 impacted financial situation 175 372       
 No 60 (34.3) 169 (45.4)   1    1  
 Yes 115 (65.7) 203 (54.6) 0.014 1.60 1.10–2.32 0.297 1.26 0.82–1.95
Co-morbidities 175 374       
 No 91 (52.0) 184 (49.2)   1    1  
 Psychiatric/Mental health issues 12 (6.9) 29 (7.8) 0.626 0.84 0.41–1.72 0.952 1.02 0.49–2.12
 Other co-morbidities* 72 (41.1) 161 (43.0) 0.598 0.90 0.62–1.32 0.698 1.09 0.69–1.72
Smoking 138 288       
 Never smoker 117 (84.8) 254 (88.2)   1    1  
 Ever smoker (Daily/Non-daily/Ex) 21 (15.2) 34 (11.8) 0.326 1.34 0.75–2.41 0.430 1.31 0.67–2.59
Increased smoking over the last 4 weeks 21 34       
 No 12 (57.1) 22 (64.7)   1    1  
 Yes 9 (42.9) 12 (35.3) 0.575 1.38 0.45–4.19 0.902 1.09 0.29–4.14
Current alcohol drinking (last 4 weeks) 174 374       
 No 131 (75.3) 215 (57.5)   1    1  
 Yes 43 (24.7) 159 (42.5) 0.000 0.44 0.30–0.66 0.002 0.45 0.27–0.74
Increased alcohol drinking over the last 4 weeks 41 158       
 No 20 (48.8) 118 (74.7)   1    1  
 Yes 21 (51.2) 40 (25.3) 0.002 3.10 1.52–6.30 0.003 3.64 1.54–8.58
Provided care to a family member/patient with known/suspected case of COVID-19 175 374       
 No 144 (82.3) 308 (82.4)   1    1  
 Yes 31 (17.7) 66 (17.6) 0.985 1.01 0.63–1.61 0.929 0.98 0.57–1.67
Healthcare service use in the last 4 weeks 175 374       
 No 133 (76.0) 302 (80.7)   1    1  
 Visited healthcare providers in person 21 (12.0) 43 (11.5) 0.718 1.11 0.63–1.94 0.410 1.52 0.56–4.15
 Telehealth consultation with healthcare providers/National helpline 21 (12.0) 29 (7.8) 0.103 1.64 0.90–2.99 0.163 3.21 0.62–16.5
Level of psychological distress (K10 categories) 174 373       
 Low (score 10–15) 39 (22.4) 166 (44.5)   1    1  
 Medium to Very high (score 16–50) 135 (77.6) 207 (55.5) 0.000 2.78 1.84–4.19 0.000 2.90 1.82–4.62
Level of coping (BRCS categories) 175 374       
 Low resilient copers (score 4–13) 170 (97.1) 364 (97.3)   1    1  
 Medium to high resilient copers (score 14–20) 5 (2.9) 10 (2.7) 0.902 1.07 0.36–3.18 0.953 0.96 0.28–3.32
Healthcare service use to overcome COVID-19 related stress in the last 4 weeks 175 374       
 No 157 (89.7) 354 (94.7)   1    1  
 Yes 18 (10.3) 20 (5.3) 0.037 2.03 1.04–3.94 0.002 3.54 1.57–7.99
  1. Adjusted for: age, gender, living status, born in Australia, education and employment
  2. * Cardiac diseases/Stroke/Hypertension/Hyperlipidaemia/Diabetes/Cancer/Chronic respiratory illness