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Table 5 Predictors of cigar & hand rolled tobacco smoking among men (N = 8606)

From: Comparisons of social and demographic determinants of tobacco use in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

  Odds Ratio Std. Error z Calculated p-value Lower Limit Upper Limit
Age 1.03 0.005 5.68 0.0000 1.0169 1.0350
Rurality (Large city ref.) 1.00 . . . . .
 Small city 1.09 0.412 0.22 0.8262 0.5169 2.2849
 Town 0.53 0.172 −1.96 0.0494 0.2796 0.9984
 Countryside 0.77 0.223 −0.89 0.3752 0.4403 1.3624
Educational Level (No education ref.) 1.00 . . . . .
 Primary 0.72 0.153 −1.53 0.1250 0.4757 1.0948
 Secondary 0.54 0.153 −2.17 0.0300 0.3085 0.9418
 Higher 0.13 0.090 −3.01 0.0026 0.0366 0.4967
Literacy (Cannot read ref.) 1.00 . . . . .
 Parts of sentence 1.02 0.195 0.12 0.9033 0.7050 1.4855
 Whole sentence 0.73 0.153 −1.52 0.1282 0.4792 1.0972
 No card w/ req. lang. 2.01 1.071 1.31 0.1916 0.7054 5.7118
 Blind 1.82 1.285 0.85 0.3955 0.4568 7.2616
Wealth Index (Poorest ref.) 1.00 . . . . .
 Poorer 0.83 0.114 −1.37 0.1707 0.6329 1.0844
 Middle 0.65 0.097 −2.89 0.0038 0.4813 0.8688
 Richer 0.60 0.113 − 2.70 0.0070 0.4194 0.8714
 Richest 0.25 0.089 −3.88 0.0001 0.1241 0.5037
Occupation (Agricultural self-emp. Ref.) 1.00 . . . . .
 Professional, technical, manager 0.56 0.141 −2.28 0.0224 0.3458 0.9221
 Clerical 0.44 0.453 −0.80 0.4251 0.0592 3.2929
 Sales 0.45 0.153 −2.35 0.0189 0.2322 0.8770
 Not Working 0.13 0.052 −5.15 0.0000 0.0605 0.2841
 Agricultural employee 0.71 0.137 −1.79 0.0736 0.4824 1.0337
 Services 1.00 0.177 0.02 0.9828 0.7108 1.4176
 Skilled manual 0.65 0.286 −0.97 0.3322 0.2785 1.5405
 Unskilled manual 0.58 0.278 −1.13 0.2568 0.2276 1.4845
 Army 1.90 0.595 2.05 0.0403 1.0288 3.5096
 Others 1.00 . . . . .
Ethnicity (Bas-kongo ref.) 1.00 . . . . .
 Bas-kasai & Kwilu-kwngo 0.98 0.289 −0.05 0.9571 0.5538 1.7495
 Cuvette central 1.51 0.442 1.42 0.1544 0.8553 2.6833
 Ubangi & Itimburi 0.65 0.200 −1.40 0.1610 0.3555 1.1874
 Uele Lac Albert 1.38 0.395 1.11 0.2660 0.7841 2.4143
 Basele-k, Maniema & Kivu 1.01 0.281 0.05 0.9619 0.5887 1.7442
 Kasai, Katanga, Tanganika 1.73 0.448 2.13 0.0335 1.0439 2.8759
 Lunda 3.95 1.661 3.27 0.0011 1.7326 9.0047
 Pygmy 2.28 1.366 1.37 0.1692 0.7043 7.3776
 Other 1.00 . . . . .
_cons 0.08 0.037 −5.43 0.0000 0.0327 0.2006