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Table 4 Predictors of snuff use among men (n = 8583)

From: Comparisons of social and demographic determinants of tobacco use in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

  Odds Ratio Std. Error z p-value Lower Limit Upper Limit
Age 1.02 0.004 5.88 0.0000 1.0149 1.0300
Rurality (Large city ref.) 1.00 . . . . .
 Small city 1.02 0.302 0.08 0.9352 0.5750 1.8246
 Town 1.00 0.222 −0.02 0.9842 0.6431 1.5413
 Countryside 0.96 0.219 −0.19 0.8493 0.6116 1.4991
Educational Level (No education ref.) 1.00 . . . . .
 Primary 1.31 0.333 1.05 0.2941 0.7928 2.1535
 Secondary 1.60 0.498 1.50 0.1333 0.8668 2.9417
 Higher 0.86 0.336 −0.37 0.7077 0.4037 1.8511
Literacy (Cannot read ref.) 1.00 . . . . .
 Parts of sentence 0.76 0.152 −1.36 0.1734 0.5142 1.1274
 Whole sentence 0.65 0.138 −2.01 0.0442 0.4307 0.9889
 No card w/ req. lang. 0.41 0.435 −0.84 0.4010 0.0516 3.2731
 Blind 0.47 0.510 −0.70 0.4862 0.0552 3.9656
Wealth Index (Poorest ref.) 1.00 . . . . .
 Poorer 0.97 0.125 −0.27 0.7845 0.7496 1.2432
 Middle 0.86 0.115 −1.14 0.2525 0.6592 1.1157
 Richer 0.77 0.120 −1.66 0.0968 0.5709 1.0474
 Richest 0.58 0.145 −2.19 0.0288 0.3536 0.9449
Occupation (Agricultural self-emp. Ref.) 1.00 . . . . .
 Professional, technical, manager 0.69 0.113 −2.24 0.0253 0.5036 0.9558
 Clerical 0.37 0.280 −1.31 0.1886 0.0863 1.6205
 Sales 0.78 0.157 −1.24 0.2138 0.5241 1.1555
 Not Working 0.48 0.083 −4.25 0.0000 0.3452 0.6752
 Agricultural employee 0.97 0.147 −0.21 0.8327 0.7193 1.3039
 Services 0.94 0.150 −0.41 0.6825 0.6841 1.2822
 Skilled manual 0.75 0.222 −0.97 0.3339 0.4210 1.3414
 Unskilled manual 1.19 0.332 0.63 0.5282 0.6906 2.0576
 Army 0.79 0.264 −0.70 0.4828 0.4107 1.5229
 Others 1.00 . . . . .
Ethnicity (Bas-kongo ref.) 1.00 . . . . .
 Bas-kasai & Kwilu-kwngo 0.78 0.100 −1.97 0.0491 0.6041 0.9990
 Cuvette central 0.16 0.030 −9.68 0.0000 0.1117 0.2337
 Ubangi & Itimburi 0.24 0.039 −8.95 0.0000 0.1799 0.3333
 Uele Lac Albert 0.21 0.037 −8.88 0.0000 0.1512 0.2994
 Basele-k, Maniema & Kivu 0.03 0.008 −12.19 0.0000 0.0148 0.0475
 Kasai, Katanga, Tanganika 0.04 0.008 −15.49 0.0000 0.0247 0.0568
 Lunda 0.07 0.049 −3.71 0.0002 0.0162 0.2797
 Pygmy 1.00 . . . . .
 Other 1.00 . . . . .
_cons 0.24 0.088 −3.87 0.0001 0.1132 0.4892