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Table 3 Predictors of cigarette smoking among men (N = 8583)

From: Comparisons of social and demographic determinants of tobacco use in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

  Odds Ratio se Z p-value Lower Limit Upper Limit
Age 1.03 0.003 11.01 0.0000 1.0223 1.0322
Rurality (Large city ref.) 1.00 . . . . .
 Small city 0.87 0.163 −0.75 0.4508 0.6011 1.2537
 Town 0.71 0.103 −2.38 0.0174 0.5327 0.9412
 Countryside 0.73 0.102 −2.26 0.0237* 0.5515 0.9583
Educational Level (No education ref.) 1.00 . . . . .
 Primary 1.13 0.161 0.86 0.3893 0.8554 1.4933
 Secondary 0.83 0.145 −1.08 0.2797 0.5864 1.1668
 Higher 0.43 0.106 −3.42 0.0006 0.2683 0.6993
Literacy (Cannot read ref.) 1.00 . . . . .
 Parts of sentence 0.88 0.101 −1.13 0.2568 0.6991 1.1003
 Whole sentence 0.70 0.085 −2.91 0.0036 0.5537 0.8907
 No card w/ req. lang. 1.47 0.622 0.91 0.3638 0.6407 3.3672
 Blind 0.43 0.268 −1.36 0.1746 0.1237 1.4614
Wealth Index (Poorest ref.) 1.00 . . . . .
 Poorer 0.82 0.065 −2.54 0.0112 0.6995 0.9551
 Middle 0.73 0.060 −3.77 0.0002 0.6245 0.8618
 Richer 0.56 0.055 −5.95 0.0000 0.4587 0.6748
 Richest 0.31 0.049 −7.37 0.0000 0.2241 0.4202
Occupation (Agricultural self-employed ref.) 1.00 . . . . .
 Professional, technical, manager 0.66 0.076 −3.62 0.0003 0.5256 0.8259
 Clerical 0.93 0.326 −0.19 0.8456 0.4715 1.8512
 Sales 0.79 0.108 −1.70 0.0888 0.6089 1.0356
 Not Working 0.24 0.034 −10.05 0.0000 0.1862 0.3223
 Agricultural employee 1.07 0.105 0.64 0.5226 0.8777 1.2928
 Services 1.37 0.130 3.31 0.0009 1.1372 1.6506
 Skilled manual 1.70 0.276 3.26 0.0011 1.2345 2.3343
 Unskilled manual 1.54 0.292 2.29 0.0219 1.0649 2.2343
 Army 1.57 0.301 2.33 0.0197 1.0741 2.2822
 Others 2.00 2.850 0.49 0.6269 0.1223 32.6800
Ethnicity (Bas-kongo ref.) 1.00 . . . . .
 Bas-kasai & Kwilu-kwngo 0.91 0.115 − 0.78 0.4348 0.7053 1.1620
 Cuvette central 0.79 0.110 −1.68 0.0935 0.6025 1.0402
 Ubangi & Itimburi 0.67 0.089 −3.06 0.0022 0.5125 0.8637
 Uele Lac Albert 1.08 0.144 0.55 0.5816 0.8281 1.3997
 Basele-k, Maniema & Kivu 0.55 0.070 −4.70 0.0000 0.4271 0.7047
 Kasai, Katanga, Tanganika 0.86 0.100 −1.31 0.1912 0.6834 1.0790
 Lunda 1.10 0.319 0.34 0.7375 0.6249 1.9428
 Pygmy 1.69 0.765 1.16 0.2441 0.6980 4.1068
_cons 0.44 0.103 −3.51 0.0005 0.2735 0.6928