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Table 3 Themes and Sub-themes of Content Analysis

From: Challenges and Opportunities in China’s Health Aid to Africa: Findings from Qualitative Interviews in Tanzania and Malawi

Theme Subtheme Codes
Communication strained working relationships barriers to aid,
attitudes of Chinese workers, language barrier, culture,
training, politics
  language barriers language barrier
  varying social norms and mores culture, value
  patronization of African HCW attitudes of Chinese workers, aid person, burnout
Cultural Perspectives and Historical Context lack of cultural relativity culture, value, attitudes of Chinese health workers
  power dynamics awareness, colonial history, corporate, politics
  lack of historical context barriers to aid, future, colonial history, politics
  absence of trust barriers to aid,
attitudes of Chinese workers, trust, not observed, impact
Divergence between Political and Business Agendas opportunities for private investment corporate, politics, value
  moral hazard and adverse selection politics, impact, trust,
economic development,
corporate, value
  unequal distribution of political capital (i.e. reference how Africans feel obliged to accept donations) colonial history, politics, economic development, corporate, impact, value
  concealed motivation impact, attitudes of Chinese workers, future
  influence of multilateral organizations politics, lack of external collaboration, colonial history, trust, value
Organization of Aid Implementation countries’ policies and procedures misaligned barriers to aid, procedures, coordination failure,
capacity failure
  substandard or expired donations idle resources, material resources, not observed, substandard, logistical failure, barriers to aid, lack of regulation
  country needs not met in-country needs,
material resources, infrastructure, training, recommendations, economic development
  inadequate training training, sustainability,
material resources, aid person, barriers, politics, country needs
Management and Leadership poor country and donor collaboration logistical failure, barriers to aid, lack of external collaboration
  inadequate consultation barriers to aid, consultation
  lack of central authority barriers to aid, capacity failure, logistical failure,
sufficient internal communication
Sustainability wasted, lost, or destroyed resources idle resources, language barriers, training, material resources, inadequate consultation, sufficient internal communication, lack of external collaboration,
not observed
  lack of M&E protocol evaluation, sustainability
  aid worker burnout sustainability, evaluation, burnout,
attitudes of Chinese health workers