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Table 1 Characteristics of studies on GHD for NCDs

From: Global Health diplomacy for noncommunicable diseases prevention and control: a systematic review

AuthorCountry/RegionYearJournalLevel of DiplomacyDomainarticle typeMethodkey findings
Hospedales et al. [33]CARICOM*2011Pan American Journal of Public HealthRegionalAdvocacy, Political FactorsCommentary and perspectivesQualitative- opinion piece on the process of and lessons learned in achieving the political commitment of heads of government manifested by a one-day summit on the prevention and control of NCDs*Implementation of the NCD Summit Declaration mandates was most effective in larger countries with greater capacity, but countries of all sizes performed well, when they had regional or global support. Progress was limited in regional approaches to food security, labeling, and elimination of trans fats. Inadequate funding stymied several resource-dependent interventions. Monitoring mechanisms were established, but more concrete goals are needed, especially for actions of non-health government agencies.
Lencucha et al. [34]Canada2010Health Policy and PlanningGlobalNGOs, GHD, FCTC, International Negotiations, Global Health GovernanceOriginal studyGrounded theory—qualitative data from public documents and in-depth interviews with participants from the government and NGOs*Five key activities or roles of the Canadian NGOs during the negotiation of the FCTC*: monitoring, lobbying, brokering knowledge, offering technical expertise and fostering inclusion.
Blouin [30]2012Administrative SciencesGlobalGlobal Health, Diplomacy, NCDs, Chronic Diseases, Policy, Global Collective ActionReviewReview—social sciences literature on policymaking at the domestic and international levelAdopting a global strategy with partners
to increase media coverage.
key role of civil society organizations in a strong collective response
Lee [35]Brazil2010PLoS MedicineNational/
NGOs, GHD*, FCTC, International NegotiationsOriginal studykey informant interviews with Brazilian policymakers, diplomats, and public health advocates on the country’s role in FCTC negotiations, literature review of priary and secondary sourcesproviding leadership throughout the negotiation process
Blouin & Dubé [36]2010Journal of Public Health PolicyGlobalObesity Prevention, NGOs, GHD, FCTC, International NegotiationsReviewReview of documents and studies— a simple analytical framework is used: (1) the specific problem requiring global collective action, (2) key actors, (3) their interests in the problem, (4) potential negotiation process, and (5) potential scenarios for collective actionrequire a much stronger engagement with developing countries
Mamudu & Glantz [37]2009Global Public HealthGlobalCivil Society, GHD, FCTC, International NegotiationsOriginal studyInterview and triangulation of archival documents andUsing proper strategies including publication of a newsletter, shaming, symbolism and media advocacy by the FCA to influence policy positions of countries during the FCTC negotiation.
Teixeira et al. [38]Brazil2017Cadernos de Saúde PúblicaNational/
Civil Society, GHD, FCTC, International NegotiationsOriginal studyKingdon’s perspectiveThe link between tobacco-related healthcare measures by technically skilled officials, the involvement of the high echelon of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (policy flow), the initiative for the establishment of the WHO*-FCTC (problem flow), and the existence of a favorable environment in executive and legislative (political flow), opened a opportunity window for WHO-FCTC approval and its inclusion in the government decision agenda.
Sener [39]2014American Journal of SurgeryGlobalMedical Diplomacy, Tobacco Control, Breast HealthCommentary and perspectivesQualitativeUnprecedented presence and participation of NGOs in the drafting stages was helpful for starting negotiations for the treaty
Smith & Irwin [40]India2016Globalization and HealthNational/
Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages to Children, GHD, International NegotiationsCommentary and perspectivesEthnographic study,
in-depth interviews
a successful GHD in international level is part of a process, not the end, and an important part of conducting and evaluating GHD is a consideration of challenges and barriers concerning national action.
Pearlman et al. [21]2016Science & DiplomacyGlobalGHD, Cancer, Multi-stakeholder collaborations, NCDscase studyDocument review and evidence-based surveyovercome many barriers with Effective partnership and careful coordination
Wipfli & Samet [41]2012Tobacco ControlGlobalGHD, FCTC, International NegotiationsCommentary and perspectivesExtending the lessons learned from tobacco control to NCD controlThe collective response to NCDs should centralize on generating multisectoral evidence about the transnational factors influencing the rise in NCDs and their risk factors.
Juma et al. [42]Kenya, South Africa, Cameroon, Nigeria, and Malawi2018BMC Public HealthNational/
Multi-sectoral Actionmultiple case studyDocument reviews and key informant interviews, McQueen’s framework for intersectoral governanceThe need for mechanisms including approaches to capacity building and resource production to be able to take multi-sectoral measures in policy development, implementation and monitoring of NCD results.
Dain [43]2018International Journal of Health Policy and ManagementGlobalCivil Society Networks, Coalition Building, Advocacy, Governance, Human Sustainable DevelopmentCommentary and perspectivesShiffman’s ‘Four Challenges that Global Health Networks Face’NCDA’s* advocacy has contributed to the call for global political commitment.
Russell et al. [44]2018Global Public HealthGlobalGHD, E-cigarettes, FCTC, International LawOriginal studyEthnography methodOne of the important tasks of the FCA is to prepare policy brief on key issues.
Frech [45]Latin America2018Journal of Global OncologyRegional/
Cancer Research and Control, Partnerships and DiplomacyCommentary and perspectivesQualitativeThe need for high-level cooperation (the President’s commitment), the sharing of information to support the efficient use of limited resources, the prevention of repeated attempts, and the synergy of current investments in specific countries are essential.
Beaglehole [46]2011LancetGlobalUN* High-Level Meeting on NCDs, Global Crisis, Need for Global Response, International Cooperation, Monitoring and AccountabilityCommentary and perspectivesReport- providing evidence for the realities of the NCD situation, summaries key messages for heads of state and governments.Long-term success requires inspiring and committed national and international leadership, improving primary health care, effective use of existing resources, new financing methods.
Nishtar et al. [47]2018LancetGlobalWHO Independent High-level Commission on NCDs, National Response to NCDs, International CooperationCommentary and perspectivesThis report represented rich and diverse views and perspectives.Ensureing implementation through legislation, regulation and standards or investment.
Health in all policies, approaches of the whole government, the whole society and intersectoral approaches must be taken in the field of NCDs actions. Need technical support, training, practical research and capacity building initiatives.
Samuels & Hospedales [48]CARICOM2011West Indian Medical JournalRegional/
Heads of government, UN High-Level Meeting on NCDsCommentary and perspectivesReportcommit to strengthening systems and incrising resources, endorse and implement the commitments made and identify and support leadership for sustained action and accountability for these initiatives.
Hatefi et al. [49]2018Bulletin of the World Health OrganizationGlobalGlobal Susceptibility to NCDs, AccountabilityCommentary and perspectivesPerspectives on rational response to global health risksThe main response to NCDs must happen downstream at the country level.
Wickramasinghe et al. [50]Lebanon, Morocco, Sudan, and Yemen2018Global Health ActionNational/
Multisectoral Action, National-level stakeholdersoriginal studyStructured interviews with key stakeholdersAchievement to national multisectoral action plans development through collaboration and good technical support.
Mendis [51]2010British Medical BulletinGlobalPolicies to Support Regulatory, Legislative, Intersectoral ActionCommentary and perspectivesQualitative reviewNeeded to develop innovative approaches for revenue generation for prevention and control of NCDs. Adapted agenda concering the context of contries.
Maher & Sridhar [52]2012Journal of Global HealthGlobalGlobal Fight Against NCDs, global health policy communities, political leadersdiscipline configurative case studyQualitative -Shiffman’s 2009 political priority frameworkEngaging the diverse actors for the global proliferation of NCDs.
Gneiting & Schmitz [53]2016Health Policy and PlanningGlobalAdvocacy, Political Factors, Network Formation and Evolution in International Health GovernanceOriginal studyIn-depth qualitative analysis, in-depth examination of social and political processes with a paired comparisonglobal health networks (individuals to a global coalition of membership) are engaging in advocacy on a given health problem.
Magnusson [54]2007Globalization and HealthGlobalGlobal Health GovernanceCommentary and perspectivesReportNeeded to broader framework of reference for lifestyle-related NCDs
Battams & Townsend [55]2018Critical Public HealthGlobal/ nationtrade policy, policy
coherence, social
determinants of health, advocacy
original studyInterviews with key actors working across trade and health sectorsSupport for advocacy coalitions operating basedn upon trade and geopolitical interests.
Lobbying trade policy actors proactively and benefit from linking with global advocacy networks as a way to counter the power and resources of industries with NCD risk areas.
Kirton et al. [56]CARICOM2018Pan American Journal of Public HealthRegional/globalPort of Spain Summit Declaration, global and regional actionOriginal studyUsing data from published literature, primary documents, and semistructured interviews (a method developed by the University of Toronto’s Global Governance Program)requirement to embed NCDs in a whole-of-global-governance approach, monitor implementation annually, develop transregional partnerships, engage civil society and support regular regional and global summits
Greaves et al. [57]CARICOM2018Pan American Journal of Public HealthRegionalPort of Spain Summit Declaration, Health communicationCommentary and perspectivesReport and reviewthe NCDs advocate should be considered as knowledge broker performing tasks related to effective knowledge transfer, networking and capacity building
Chattu et al. [58]CARICOM2019Health Promotion PerspectivesGlobalPort of Spain Summit Declaration, outcome of GHDreviewsystematic reviewImpact of the NCDs regional summit
declaration on global attention to the Prevention and Control of NCDs.
McBride et al. [59]2019BMC Public HealthGlobalGHD, Soft power, Global health agenda-setting, SDGs*, BRICS, G7, G20Original studyContent analysis to review the health ministerial
communiqués issued by the political clubs after the SDGs were adopted at the UN General Assembly of September 2015
The global health leadership of the BRICS, G7 and G20 represents an exercise of soft power and GHD on NCDs and their risk factors.
Collins et al. [60]2019The bmjGlobaldevelopment cooperation, global action,Commentary and perspectivesReport and reviewDevelopment South-South and triangular cooperation beyond North-South development assistance.
  1. * noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), global health diplomacy (GHD), United Nations (UN), World Health Organization (WHO), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), The Caribbean Community (CARICOM), Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), noncommunicable diseases alliance (NCDA), Sustainable development goals (SDGs)