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Table 2 Multivariate analysis of ANC and SBAs among primigravidas in Uganda (2006–2016)

From: Maternal health services utilisation among primigravidas in Uganda: what did the MDGs deliver?

 Timing of 1st ANC visitANC visitsSBAsAll 3 services
VariableAdjusted OR(R. SE.)Adjusted OR(R. SE.)Adjusted OR(R. SE.)Adjusted OR(R. SE.)
Year
20061.001.001.001.00
20111.30 (0.137)**0.99 (0.084)1.46 (0.154)***1.10 (0.074)
20161.48 (0.136)***1.24 (0.092)***2.98 (0.297)***1.42 (0.083)***
Education
Primary1.001.001.001.00
No Form. Edu.1.54 (0.216)***0.90 (0.115)0.76 (0.102)**1.04 (0.108)
Secondary+1.15 (0.092)*1.17 (0.084)**2.34 (0.291)***1.16 (0.061)***
Age
  ≤ 201.001.001.001.00
21–251.05 (0.078)1.13 (0.073)*1.05 (0.092)0.99 (0.049)
  > 251.33 (0.142)***1.44 (0.169)***2.02 (0.443)***1.25 (0.100)***
Marital Status
Married1.001.001.001.00
Single0.91 (0.107)0.96 (0.087)1.11 (0.140)0.94 (0.071)
Religion
Christian1.001.001.001.00
Non-Christian1.12 (0.104)1.03 (0.085)0.97 (0.119)1.11 (0.070)
Wealth Quintile
Richest1.001.001.001.00
Poorest0.77 (0.106)*0.67 (0.087)***0.43 (0.083)***0.81 (0.077)**
Poor0.76 (0.097)**0.65 (0.078)***0.48 (0.090)***0.80 (0.069)***
Middle0.82 (0.105)0.76 (0.090)**0.59 (0.112)***0.84 (0.072)**
Rich0.86 (0.098)0.73 (0.079)***0.65 (0.118)**0.89 (0.070)
Employment
Full1.001.001.001.00
Temporary0.88 (0.069)0.93 (0.064)0.96 (0.090)0.90 (0.048)*
Unemployed0.97 (0.081)0.88 (0.065)*1.18 (0.140)0.96 (0.055)
Financial burden of healthcare access
Small challenge1.001.001.001.00
Big challenge0.89 (0.064)0.96 (0.060)1.19 (0.105)*0.98 (0.048)
Physical burden of healthcare access
Small problem1.001.001.001.00
Big problem0.996 (0.074)0.91 (0.057)0.83 (0.070)**0.96 (0.048)
Women’s decision-making power
Middle1.001.001.001.00
High1.04 (0.287)0.82 (0.205)0.63 (0.173)*0.97 (0.195)
Low0.93 (0.101)0.81 (0.069)**0.84 (0.094)0.94 (0.066)
Place of Residence
Rural1.001.001.001.00
Urban0.82 (0.080)**0.86 (0.077)*1.91 (0.321)***0.94 (0.064)
Region of Residence
North1.001.001.001.00
Kampala0.76 (0.115)*1.04 (0.155)1.39 (0.455)0.99 (0.105)
Central 10.76 (0.112)*0.84 (0.112)0.83 (0.158)0.95 (0.098)
Central 20.65 (0.098)***0.86 (0.111)0.79 (0.135)0.81 (0.081)**
East Central0.63 (0.098)***0.95 (0.125)1.19 (0.217)0.92 (0.093)
Eastern0.52 (0.066)***0.83 (0.084)*1.04 (0.135)0.73 (0.059)***
West Nile0.80 (0.109)*1.13 (0.136)1.33 (0.199)*1.02 (0.094)
Western0.72 (0.090)***0.81 (0.090)*0.85 (0.122)0.86 (0.075)*
Southwestern1.24 (0.149)*0.93 (0.114)0.83 (0.124)1.17 (0.108)*
Constant0.41 (0.069)***3.00 (0.460)***8.86 (1.999)***0.63 (0.073)***
Observation3477347734773477
  1. Note:OROdds ratios,R. SE. robust standard errors in parenthesis; ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.1