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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of maternal health utilisation among primigravidas in Uganda

From: Maternal health services utilisation among primigravidas in Uganda: what did the MDGs deliver?

 YearMeasures and coding of variables
 2006 (n = 761)2011 (n = 759)2016 (n = 1957)2006–16 (n = 3477) 
Variable%%%% 
Timing of 1st ANC visit
  ≤ 8 weeks - early22.6028.7231.0728.70Derived from question on timing of first antenatal visit during last pregnancy. Coded late or never = 0 for ANC after first 8 weeks of pregnancy or no ANC; and early = 1 for first ANC within first 8 weeks.
  > 8 weeks - late77.4071.2868.9371.30
ANC visits
 At least 4 visits57.5659.4264.6461.95Came from question on number of antenatal visits during last pregnancy. Coded less than 4 visits = 0, and at least 4 visits = 1.
 Less than 4 visits42.4440.5835.3638.05
Skill Birth Attendance
 Yes64.6578.2687.0280.21Person who assisted respondents during last delivery. Coded nurse, midwife or a doctor as yes = 1, and any other as no = 0
 No35.3521.7412.9819.79
All maternal health services
 Yes13.4017.7923.8620.25Cross-reference of all three maternal health services. Coded yes = 1 if had early ANC, 4+ ANC visits and assisted delivery, and no = 0 if otherwise
 No86.6082.2176.1479.75
Education
 Primary61.1050.9953.3554.53Highest educational attainment of respondents coded Primary = 1, No formal education = 2, and Secondary or higher education = 3
 No Form. Edu.8.285.673.424.98
 Secondary or higher30.6243.3543.2340.49
Age
  ≤ 2057.8249.2849.9251.51Age of individuals at time of survey was categorized and coded as ≤20 = 1, 21–25 = 2, and ≥ 26 = 3
 21–2533.5140.5838.3237.76
 26–468.6710.1411.7510.73
Marital Status
 Married78.1967.7266.5369.34Marital status comprised of never married, widowed, divorced and married, coded into married = 1, and single (never married, widowed and divorced) =2
 Single21.8132.2833.4730.66
Religion
 Christian85.0284.4585.1384.96Religion was categorized and coded as Christians = 1, and non-Christians (Moslems, traditional religion and no religion) = 2
 Non-Christian14.9815.5514.8715.04
Wealth Quintile
 Poorest20.1117.0018.9618.78Household wealth is a pre-constructed weighted variable in the Ugandan Demographic and Health Survey from household characteristics (e.g. type of house floor materials, wall and roofing), water and sanitation, and electricity availability, household consumption assets (e.g. radio, bicycle, car, etc.).
 Poor19.1915.6820.8019.33
 Middle15.5116.3415.5915.73
 Rich14.9815.6818.9117.34
 Richest30.2235.3125.7528.82
Employment status
 Full37.3242.6945.1742.91Employment status came a question about the type of employment of responded, coded into full employment = 1, temporal employment = 2, and unemployed = 3
 Temporary43.6327.6732.9634.14
 Unemployed19.0529.6421.8722.95
Financial access to healthcare
 Small challenge38.2457.9759.5854.56Came from the question on how difficult it is getting money to access healthcare when in need, and this is coded into small challenge = 1 and big challenge = 2
 Big challenge61.7642.0340.4245.44
Physical access to healthcare
 Small challenge48.4964.5666.1261.92Came from the question on how difficult it is physically accessing healthcare when in need, and this is coded into small challenge = 1 and big challenge = 2
 Big challenge51.5135.4433.8838.08
Women’s decision-making power
 Middle13.0155.6021.2655.51Addictive scale of women’s involvement in decision-making on health care service, large household purchases, visit to relatives, and expending husband’s earnings. Coded as male only (low = 1); men+women (middle = 2), and women only (high = 3). Cronbach’s α: 2006 = 0.82; 2011 = 0.77; and 2016 = 0.79)
 Low86.3342.9577.4743.31
 High0.661.451.281.18
Place of Residence
 Rural76.6160.8772.8771.07Place of residence was coded as rural = 1, and urban = 2
 Urban23.3939.1327.1328.93
Region of Residence
 North19.3214.1015.7416.16Derived from a question on district of residence. Political regions were reconfigured in 2011 and 2016. For consistency, regions were reclassified to conform to 2006 categories, and coded North (Karamoja, Lango and Acholi) = 1, Kampala = 2, Central 1 = 3, Central 2 = 4; Eastern Central (Busoga) = 5, Eastern (Bukedi, Bugisu, and Teso) = 6, West Nile = 7, Western (Bunyoro and Tooro) = 8, and Southwestern (Ankole and Kigezi) = 9
 Kampala12.3516.738.8411.33
 Central 19.998.308.388.71
 Central 28.677.647.978.05
 East Central9.868.436.807.82
 Eastern11.0411.3319.5715.90
 West Nile9.7212.917.619.23
 Western9.869.8815.0712.80
 Southwestern9.2010.6710.029.98