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Table 1 Four Phases of Network Development

From: Public-private knowledge transfer and access to medicines: a systematic review and qualitative study of perceptions and roles of scientists involved in HPV vaccine research

Phase IA few individual key actors initiate or renew connections among scientists working on related issues [70, 71]. These actors are often academics or government scientists who reach out to industry with an idea for a research project [68, 72]. In this phase, knowledge exchange occurs through publishing and presenting papers, conferences and a few proprietary projects between individual scientists and individual firms [71].
Phase IIAfter the key actors receive a positive response from their partners, a formal agreement must be reached [70], including an IP strategy [71, 73] and clearly identified objectives. Subsequently, partners need to commit to the network by providing or obtaining funding, which is then invested to stabilize the network [70, 71]. Lastly, members of the new network develop a leadership structure, for example through a manager [71] or a board [70].
Phase IIIThis phase establishes routines of interaction, trust and knowledge sharing within the network [70, 71]. With increasing trust between the members of the network and faith in its success, contractual routines are relaxed and members become more agile in their interactions [71].
Phase IVPhase four is the knowledge-generating phase [70]. The members of the network are exchanging explicit as well as tacit knowledge and contribute to new discoveries and their interpretation [71]. This success leads to further commitment by the members of the network and often sub-projects evolve around specific issues [70, 71].