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Table 1 Classification of 214 antimicrobial-containing products based on their AAI composition and WHO classification, as well as their frequency of use and retail price (based on 775 farmer pricing records)

From: A survey of retail prices of antimicrobial products used in small-scale chicken farms in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam

WHO categoryNo. products (N = 214) (%)AAIs in products (No. of products in bracket)No. farms using (N = 100)
(%)
No. flocks using
(N = 191)
(%)
Mean price per product ADDkg (₵) (±SE)
Highest priority+High priority43 (20.1)colistin+amoxicillin (12), colistin+ampicillin (12), colistin+neomycin (8), colistin+gentamicin (2), colistin+apramycin (1), tylosin+gentamicin (5), tylosin+amoxicillin (2), tylosin+streptomycin (1)65 (65.0%)103 (53.9%)0.52 (±0.03)
Highest priority only41 (19.2)enrofloxacin (12), flumequine (9), tilmicosin (6), erythromycin (2), norfloxacin (2), tylosin (1), colistin (2), colistin+tylosin (3), colistin+spiramycin (2), colistin+enrofloxacin (1), colistin+erythromycin (1)52 (52.0%)85 (44.5%)0.45 (±0.07)
Highest priority +Highly important38 (17.8)colistin+oxytetracycline (8), colistin+doxycycline (1), colistin+lincomycin (1), colistin+sulfadimethoxine (1), doxycycline+tylosin (6), doxycyline+tilmicosin (1), erythromycin+sulphamethoxazole (2), erythromycin+oxytetracycline (1), kitasamycin+thiamphenicol (1), oxytetracycline +neomycine (2), oxytetracycline+spiramycin (3), oxytetracycline+tylosin (2), tylosin+sulfadimidine (3), tylosin+tetracycline (2), tylosin+sulfachloropyridazine (1), tylosin+sulfamethazine (1), tylosin+sulphamethoxazole (1)88 (88.0%)163 (85.3%)0.36 (±0.03)
Highly important only35 (16.4)oxytetracycline (9), oxytetracycline+sulfadimidine (1), oxytetracycline+thiamphenicol (1), doxycycline (5), doxycycline+florfenicol (3), doxycycline+lincomycin (1), florfenicol (8), lincomycin (2), cephalexin (1), cefadroxil (1), sulphathiazole (1), sulfamethoxypyridazine+tetracycline (1), sulphamethoxazole+ thiamphenicol (1)58 (58.0%)77 (40.3%)0.46 (±0.06)
High priority+Highly important25 (11.7)lincomycin+spectinomycin (6), doxycycline+gentamicin (5), doxycycline+neomycin (1), doxycycline+ampicillin (1), oxytetracycline+streptomycin (5), oxytetracycline+neomycin (4), ampicillin+sulfadimethoxine (1), gentamicin+sulfadimidine (1), streptomycin+sulphamethoxazole (1)43(43.0%)63 (33.0%)0.45 (±0.07)
High priority only12 (5.6)amoxicillin (7), neomycin (3), ampicillin (1), streptomycin (1)19 (19.0%)23 (12.0%)0.31 (±0.04)
Highly important +Other8 (3.7)sulfadimethoxine+trimethoprim (4), sulfadiazine+trimethoprim (1), sulfadimidine+trimethoprim (1), sulphamethoxazole+trimethoprim (1), doxycycline+tiamulin (1)14 (14.0%)14 (7.3%)0.84 (±0.42)
Highest priority +Other6 (2.8)colistin+trimethoprim (3), josamycin+trimethoprim (1), spiramycin+trimethoprim (1), colistin+enramycin (1)14 (14.0%)14 (7.3%)0.46 (±0.09)
Other only3 (1.4)trimethoprim (2), methenamine (1)23 (23.0%)32 (16.8%)0.57 (±0.04)
High priority +Other2 (0.9)gentamicin +trimethoprim (1), neomycin+trimethoprim (1)6 (6.0%)6 (3.1%)0.86 (±0.18)
Highest priority +Highly important+Other1 (0.5)tylosin+trimethoprim+sulfadiazine+sulphamethoxazole (1)1 (1.0%)1 (0.5%)0.67 (nc)