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Table 2 Selected sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle behaviours in Ghana, China, India, Russia, South Africa and Mexico by NCD statusa

From: Social capital is associated with improved subjective well-being of older adults with chronic non-communicable disease in six low- and middle-income countries

 GhanaChinaIndia
One NCDMCCOne NCDMCCOne NCDMCC
n = 929n = 368 n = 3751n = 2506 n = 1650n = 1032 
Social capital score14.7 ± 7.213.6 ± 7.6**5.9 ± 3.55.4 ± 3.7***8.6 ± 5.08.7 ± 5.4 
Sub. Well-Being
 Low29.736.9**12.120.3***22.527.6***
 Medium25.123.4 22.927.5 24.826.8 
 High45.239.7 64.952.1 52.745.5 
 Female55.263.9**55.656.7 51.447.7*
 Married49.957.1**83.479.1***73.174.7 
Formal Education        **
  < Primary49.548.9 24.726.3 46.843.6 
 Primary21.223.4 37.235.0 29.627.3 
 Secondary24.222.8 33.132.7 18.321.8 
 Tertiary5.14.9 5.06.1 5.27.3 
Currently working39.054.9***36.921.3***35.430.0**
Low income tertile30.827.4**39.037.2**32.526.8***
Age in yrs.65.5 ± 10.868.1 ± 10.2***63.4 ± 9.167.2 ± 9.1***62.5 ± 9.163.6 ± 9.0**
Fruit & Vegetables4.4 ± 2.64.2 ± 2.1 9.4 ± 5.29.1 ± 5.0**2.8 ± 1.63.2 ± 2.***
Currently takes alcohol24.417.1***19.513.8***7.77.0 
Currently Smokes9.56.5 25.618.6***44.544.8 
Moderate exercise b0.6 ± 1.40.9 ± 1.5**0.9 ± 2.20.9 ± 2.2 0.5 ± 1.70.7 ± 1.9**
 RussiaSouth AfricaMexico
One NCDMCC One NCDMCC One NCDMCC 
n = 890n = 1814 n = 922n = 635 n = 766n = 577 
Social capital score6.8 ± 4.15.8 ± 4.1 11.5 ± 5.611.0 ± 5.7 5.8 ± 4.86.1 ± 4.4 
Sub. Well-Being
 Low13.830.1***21.227.1**9.312.0**
 Medium20.128.4 24.726.8 15.721.3 
 High66.141.4 54.146.1 75.166.7 
 Female64.270.3**58.868.4***37.174.3***
 Married57.850.4***51.146.0**65.452.5***
sFormal Education  **  *  **
  < Primary0.51.6 33.530.6 18.417.5 
 Primary10.611.8 42.548.5 64.565.2 
 Secondary68.669.4 19.917.0 9.17.9 
 Tertiary20.317.2 4.13.9 8.09.4 
Currently working40.920.7***27.313.9***23.918.4**
Low income Tertile36.439.4**36.626.7***43.738.8 
Age in yrs.63.5 ± 10.068.1 ± 9.8***62.5 ± 9.763.8 ± 9.0**68.4 ± 9.168.7 ± 8.7 
Fruit & Vegetables3.5 ± 2.53.3 ± 2.3**3.7 ± 2.24.0 ± 2.5**3.4 ± 1.93.3 ± 1.9 
Currently takes alcohol35.426.5***13.111.2 13.37.8**
Currently Smokes20.812.8***25.625.2 17.916.5 
Moderate exercise b0.4 ± 1.50.4 ± 1.4 0.2 ± 0.90.2 ± 0.9 0.2 ± 0.90.2 ± 1.1 
  1. aValues present percentages or means ± SD; bNumber of times engaging in moderate exercise in a week
  2. Chi-square test, ANOVA was used to examine group differences. ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.05