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Table 3 Examples of HIAs conducted by coauthors

From: Urban health: an example of a “health in all policies” approach in the context of SDGs implementation

LocationMethodology/ ToolExposureOutcomeRelated PolicyMain opportunitiesMain barriersAuthor
BarcelonaBlue Active ToolPhysical activityMortality, morbidity, DALYs, health economic valuesRiverside regenerationFirst impact assessment on this topic in this cityData quality & availability
No stakeholder participation
Vert et al, 2019 [15]
BarcelonaUTOPHIATransport-PA
Air pollution (PM2.5)
Noise (Lday 16h)
Green space (%GS)
Heat (daily mean Temperature)
MortalityLocal urban and transport planning policiesHolisitic approach in estimating the mortality burden associated with the multiple urban and transport planning related exposures
Detailed exposure data on same spatial scale
Quantification of expected impact, direction and magnitude of expected health effects
Uncertainty in causal inferences
Mortality is ‘tip of the iceberg’, morbidity was not considered
‘Double-counting’ of cases (correlation of exposures)
Risk of exposure and outcome misclassification
Quantitative HIA cannot capture intrinsic motivations for behaviour change
Mueller et al 2017a [38]
BarcelonaUTOPHIATransport-PA
Air pollution (PM2.5)
Noise (Lday 16h)
Green space (%GS)
Heat (daily mean Temperature)
Morbidity
DALYs
Local urban and transport planning policiesHolistic approach in estimating the mortality burden associated with multiple exposures
Detailed exposure data on same spatial scale
Quantification of expected impact, direction and magnitude of expected health effects
Uncertainty in causal inferences
DALY estimations & scaling from national to local level uncertainty
Risk of exposure and outcome misclassification
Mueller et al. 2017b [39]
Port LouisHealth Risk AssessmentPhysical activity, travel mode, heat, air pollutionMortalityLight Metro Express RailSmaller city: faster process, primary data collection feasible, less costly
Collaboration of all relevant ministries and sectors
Easily replicable model
Scalability if time and financial resources exist
Data quality & availability, gap between policy concerns and citizens needs
Lack of interest by local media
Thondoo et al. Unpublished
Argentina: Rosario; Bolivia: El Alto; Brazil: Sao Paulo; Chile: Santiago de Chile; Colombia: Bogota, Cali and Medellin; Ecuador: Cuenca and Quito; Guatemala: Guatemala City; Mexico: Guadalajara, Mexico City and Puebla; Panama: Panama City; Peru: LimaBlue Active ToolPhysical activityMortality, morbidity, DALYs, and mortality related economic valuesOpen streetsFirst multinational impact assessment on Open Streets
Near collaboration with stakeholders
Using the results for advocacy
Data availability and quality
Lack of harmonize data between countries and cities
Lack of collaboration between health sector and urban /transport planning
Velazquez-Cortez D, et al, unpublished
Mexico City
Bogota
Istanbul
Brisbane
Paris
TAPAS toolPhysical activity, air pollution, traffic incidentsMortality and mortality related economic valuesBus Rapid TransitFirst impact assessment
Policy popularity
Data availability and quality
Lack of harmonized data between countries and cities
Lack of collaboration between health sector and urban /transport planning
Rojas-Rueda D et al, unpublished
BarcelonaTAPAS toolPhysical activity, air pollution, traffic incidentsMortality and mortality related economic valuesTram expansionStakeholder collaboration
Use analysis data to decision making process and political debate
Data quality & availability
Lack of interest from different political parties at city council
Rojas-Rueda D et al, [40]
BarcelonaTAPAS toolPhysical activity, air pollution, traffic incidentsMortalityBike sharing systemsFirst assessment
Results helped to strength collaboration between local stakeholders and researchers
Data quality & availability No stakeholder participationRojas-Rueda D et al, 2011 [37]
BarcelonaTAPAS toolPhysical activity, air pollution, traffic incidentsMortalityActive transportation (walking and cycling) and public transport scenariosFirst assessment
Results helped to strength collaboration between local stakeholders and researchers
Data quality & availability No stakeholder participationRojas-Rueda D et al, 2012 [41]
BarcelonaTAPAS toolPhysical activity, air pollution, traffic incidentsMortality, morbidity and DALYsActive transportation (walking and cycling) and public transport scenariosProvide in deep analysis of transport related impact at local level
Results helped stakeholders to understand transport and health pathways
Data quality & availability No stakeholder participationRojas-Rueda D et al, 2013 [42]
Barcelona
Brussels
Hamburg
Lille
Lyon
Madrid
Milan
Paris
Seville
Toulouse
Valencia
Warsaw
TAPAS toolPhysical activity, air pollution, traffic incidentsMortalityBike sharing systemsFirst multinational assessment
Results helped to strength regional advocacy on bike sharing systems
Data quality & availability
Lack of harmonized data between countries and cities
No stakeholder participation
Otero I et al, 2018 [43]
Barcelona
Basel
Copenhagen
Paris
Prague
Warsaw
TAPAS toolPhysical activity, air pollution, traffic incidentsMortalityWalking and cyclingPolicy comparative between multiple cities and countries, helping to understand the implications of similar polices in different context and locations.Data quality & availability
Lack of harmonized data between countries and cities
No stakeholder participation
Rojas-Rueda D et al, 2016 [44]
MoroccoQuantitative Health Impact AssessmentAir pollution, water and sanitationMortalitySDGs 3, 6 and 11 implementationSDG context & stakeholder supportData quality & availabilityRojas-Rueda D et al, 2018 [45]
Maputo
Cochabamba
Evaluating feasibility, pilot studyNANANAFast urban growing of the cities and low development;
Possibilities for policy and intervention assessment;
Intersectorial approaches; Establishment of new communication
pathways between local authorities.
Low regulations;
Low continuity in the policies;
Low cooperation between stakeholders and poor long-term engagement; Low understanding of HIA
Research
Low capacity to collect routinely data;
Low comparability between data collected.
Gascon et al. 2016 [46]
Antwerp
Barcelona
London
Örebro
Rome
Zurich
Health impact assessment of cycling network expansions in European citiesTransport mode
physical activity
air pollution (PM2.5) fatal traffic accidents
MortalityCycling infrastructure policiesFirst study evaluating the potential associations between cycling network length, mode share and associated health impacts across European cities
Standardized data extraction methods
Detailed data availability
Cross-sectional study, no causality can be implied
Detailed data availability, assumptions on causal inferences
Impacts estimated only for active travelers, societal benefits ignored
Mueller et al, 2018 [48]
BradfordUTHOPIATransport mode
physical activity
air pollution (PM2.5)
noise (Lden)
green space (%GS)
Index Multiple Deprivation
Ethnicity
MortalityLocal urban and transport planning policiesHolisitic approach in estimating the mortality burden associated with the multiple urban and transport planning related exposures
Distribution of mortality burden by SES variables
Assumptions on causal inferences were evidence is lacking
Risk of exposure and outcome misclassification
Different strengths of evidence for exposures with mortality
Quantitative HIA cannot captures intrinsic motivations for behavior change
Mueller et al, 2018 [49]
Barcelona Transport-related physical activity (PA), (air pollution
(NO2),
road traffic noise,
green space, urban heat island (UHI) effect
Premature mortality, changes in life expectancy and economic impactsLocal planning (Superblock model)Robust overall estimation, based on best epidemiological evidence according to the current research.
Multiple urban and transport planning related exposures were considered holistically and where uncertainty on causal inferences existed, assumptions were defined with caution and impacts were estimated conservatively.
Research conducted by academia in consortium with public health and urban ecology local agencies
Non-fatal impacts such as the expected reduction in chronic disease, improvements in quality of life, social cohesion and mental health have not been quantified.
Simultaneous improvement of the suburban commuter network is needed.
Gentrification is a possible risk.
Undesired relocation of car/motorcycle traffic (to potentially already deprived areas) outside the Superblocks needs to be considered and avoided
Muller et al, 2019 [47]