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Table 3 Prevalence of stunting and wasting among children age 0–59 months by children’s, mother’s, and household characteristics

From: Determinants of nutritional status among children under age 5 in Ethiopia: further analysis of the 2016 Ethiopia demographic and health survey

Independent variables Outcome variables
Stunting Wasting
AOR (95%CI) AOR (95%CI)
Children’s characteristics
Age Less than 6 months 1 1
6–11 months 1.34 (0.97–1.86) 1.10 (0.82–1.50)
12–17 months 3.50*** (2.59–4.74) 1.13 (0.84–1.52)
18–23 months 7.81*** (5.73–10.65) 0.87 (0.62–1.21)
24–59 months 6.59*** (5.00–8.68) 0.56*** (0.43–0.73)
Sex Male 1 1
Female 0.82*** (0.74–0.90) 0.77*** (0.67–0.88)
Birth order First 1 1
2 to 4 1.02 (0.87–1.20) 1.02 (0.80–1.29)
5 or higher 1.16 (0.97–1.39) 1.16 (0.90–1.50)
Perceived weight at birth Very small 1 1
Smaller than average 0.82* (0.67–0.99) 1.07 (0.83–1.37)
Average 0.68*** (0.59–0.78) 0.71*** (0.59–0.86)
Very large or larger than average 0.54*** (0.47–0.63) 0.60*** (0.49–0.74)
Mother’s characteristics
Marital status Never in union 1 1
Married/living with partner 0.72 (0.38–1.39) 2.16 (0.51–9.14)
Widowed/divorced/ separated 0.64 (0.32–1.26) 2.48 (0.57–10.76)
Age 12–19 1 1
20–49 0.97 (0.81–1.16) 0.96 (0.74–1.25)
Educational status No education   
Primary 0.97 (0.86–1.10) 0.92 (0.76–1.11)
Secondary and above 0.66*** (0.52–0.84) 0.80 (0.57–1.13)
Working status No 1 1
Yes 1.02 (0.91–1.14) 1.08 (0.91–1.28)
Mother’s BMI Underweight   
Normal 0.84** (0.74–0.94) 0.67*** (0.57–0.78)
Overweight 0.57*** (0.45–0.71) 0.39*** (0.28–0.55)
Maternal stature Normal stature 1 1
Short stature 2.03*** (1.44–2.86) 1.08 (0.65–1.80)
Households characteristics
Sex of household head Male 1 1
Female 1.07 (0.94–1.23) 0.97 (0.81–1.17)
Place of Residence Urban 1 1
Rural 0.86 (0.69–1.07) 0.61 (0.64–1.10)
Region Tigray 1 1
Afar 0.87 (0.69–1.10) 1.33 (0.97–1.81)
Amhara 1.27* (1.03–1.58) 0.87 (0.62–1.20)
Oromia 0.83 (0.68–1.01) 1.00 (0.75–1.34)
Somali 0.52*** (0.42–0.65) 2.02*** (1.51–2.68)
Benishangul 1.13 (0.90–1.43) 0.97 (0.69–1.37)
SNNP 0.99 (0.80–1.21) 0.60** (0.43–0.85)
Gambela 0.51*** (0.39–0.66) 1.19 (0.84–1.67)
Harari 0.87 (0.67–1.15) 1.20 (0.81–1.76)
Addis Ababa 0.64* (0.43–0.94) 0.35** (0.17–0.76)
Dire Dawa 1.09 (0.83–1.43) 0.83 (0.55–1.27)
Wealth quintile Poorest 1 1
Poorer 1.01 (0.86–1.17) 0.88 (0.71–1.10)
Middle 0.77** (0.65–0.91) 0.92 (0.72–1.16)
Richer 0.69*** (0.58–0.82) 0.66** (0.50–0.87)
Richest 0.62*** (0.49–0.79) 0.58** (0.40–0.83)
Drinking water source Improved water 1 1
Non-improved water 0.91 (0.81–1.01) 1.00 (0.86–1.17)
Type of toilet facilities Improved toilet 1 1
Non-improved toilet 1.28** (1.07–1.53) 1.06 (0.83–1.36)
Type of cooking fuel Modern fuel 1 1
Traditional fuel 1.66** (1.18–2.32) 1.28 (0.74–2.21)
  1. *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05, AOR: adjusted odds ratio