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Table 2 Bivariate analysis of stunting and wasting by child’s, mother’s, and household characteristics

From: Determinants of nutritional status among children under age 5 in Ethiopia: further analysis of the 2016 Ethiopia demographic and health survey

Independent Variables Outcome variables
Stunting % 95% CI Chi2
p-value
Wasting % 95% CI Chi2
p-value
Children’s characteristics
 Age    < 0.001    < 0.001
  Less than 6 months 13.6 [10.0,18.3]   15.5 [11.5,20.5]  
  6–11 months 17.2 [13.4,21.7]   12.9 [10.1,16.4]  
  12–17 months 31.7 [27.7,36.1]   15.4 [12.3,19]  
  18–23 months 48.6 [43.2,54.1]   11.3 [7.8,16.0]  
  24–59 months 45.5 [42.9,48.1]   7.5 [6.5,8.6]  
 Sex    < 0.001    0.760
  Male 41.2 [38.7,43.8]   10.1 [8.8,11.6]  
  Female 35.7 [33.4,38.2]   9.8 [8.4,11.4]  
 Birth order    0.039    0.170
  First 36.1 [31.8,40.7]   8.3 [6.4,10.7]  
  2 to 4 37.0 [34.4,39.7]   9.7 [8.2,11.5]  
  5 or higher 41.3 [38.5,44.3]   11.0 [9.5,12.7]  
 Perceived weight at birth    < 0.001    0.002
  Very small 46.2 [41.5,51]   13.4 [10.9,16.5]  
  Smaller than average 43.6 [38.7,48.6]   12.0 [9.2,15.6]  
  Average 37.6 [34.9,40.3]   9.6 [8.2,11.2]  
  Very large or larger than average 34.6 [31.8,37.5]   8.2 [6.8,9.9]  
Mother’s characteristics
 Marital status    0.771    0.531
  Never married 44.5 [26.8,63.8]   5.2 [0.8,28.1]  
  Married/living with partner 38.4 [36.5,40.4]   9.9 [8.9,11]  
  Widowed/divorced/ separated 40.6 [33.2,48.4]   12.0 [7.8,17.9]  
 Age at child’s birth    0.111    0.478
  12–19 42.5 [37.2,48]   9.0 [6.7,12]  
  20–49 38.1 [36.1,40.5]   10.1 [9.0,12.2]  
 Educational status    < 0.001    0.051
  No education 41.7 [39.5,44]   10.8 [9.5,12.2]  
  Primary 35.6 [32.5,38.8]   8.7 [7.1,10.7]  
  Secondary and above 19.5 [15.3,24.4]   7.2 [4.8,10.7]  
 Working status    0.947    0.410
  No 38.5 [36.3,40.8]   9.7 [8.5,11.0]  
  Yes 38.6 [35.7,41.7]   10.7 [8.8,12.9]  
 Mother’s BMI    < 0.001    < 0.001
  Underweight 41.9 [38.5,45.5]   13.5 [11.3,16]  
  Normal 38.9 [36.5,41.3]   9.5 [8.4,16]  
  Overweight 24.4 [19.6,29.9]   4.6 [2.4,8.8]  
 Maternal stature    < 0.001    0.396
  Normal stature 38.1 [36.1,40.1]   9.9 [8.8,11.1]  
  Short stature 54.8 [45.5,63.7]   12.6 [7.4,20.7]  
Household characteristics
 Sex of household head    0.220    0.287
  Male 38.4 [36.4,40.6]   10.1 [9.0,11.4]  
  Female 39.2 [35.7,42.8]   8.8 [7.0,11.1]  
 Place of residence    < 0.001    0.509
  Urban 26.0 [21.5,31.1]   9.1 [7.0,11.8]  
  Rural 40.1 [38.1,42.2]   10.1 [9.0,11.3]  
 Region    < 0.001    < 0.001
  Tigray 39.5 [35.8,43.4]   11.5 [9.5,13.8]  
  Afar 40.9 [36.5,45.5]   17.1 [13.4,21.6]  
  Amhara 47.6 [43.8,51.4]   10.0 [8.0,12.5]  
  Oromia 36.1 [32.8,39.5]   10.5 [8.8,12.6]  
  Somali 26.5 [22.8,30.6]   22.2 [17.5,27.8]  
  Benishangul 42.9 [38.2,47.6]   10.5 [7.8,14.0]  
  SNNP 39.6 [35.7,43.6]   6.2 [4.8,8.0]  
  Gambela 24.1 [20.3,28.4]   13.9 [10.4,18.4]  
  Harari 32.1 [27.7,36.8]   10.7 [7.4,15.2]  
  Addis Ababa 14.9 [11.1,19.7]   2.4 [1.3,4.6]  
  Dire Dawa 40.9 [34.5,47.6]   10.2 [7.1,14.4]  
 Wealth quintile    < 0.001    < 0.001
  Poorest 45.6 [42.4,48.8]   13.8 [11.2,16.8]  
  Poorer 42.5 [38.7,46.5]   9.6 [7.7,12.0]  
  Middle 38.6 [34,43.4]   10.4 [8.2,13.1]  
  Richer 34.8 [31,38.7]   6.8 [5.1,9.0]  
  Richest 25.7 [22.1,29.7]   7.7 [5.7,10.2]  
 Drinking water source    0.048    0.098
  Improved water 37.0 [34.6,39.5]   9.2 [8.0,10.5]  
  Non-Improved water 40.5 [37.8,43.3]   11.0 [9.3,12.8]  
 Toilet facilities    < 0.001    0.222
  Improved toilet 26.8 [22.4,31.7]   8.5 [6.5,11.1]  
  Non-improved toilet 39.8 [37.8,42]   10.0 [9.0,11.3]  
 Type of cooking fuel    < 0.001    0.049
  Modern fuel 21.4 [14.9,29.9]   5.2 [2.6,10.2]  
  Traditional fuel 39.1 [37.2,41.1]   10.1 [9.1,11.3]