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Table 3 Examples of moving from meaning units to themes in content analysis of health service users’ FGDs

From: Experiences of care in the context of payment for performance (P4P) in Tanzania

Meaning unit Condensed meaning unit
Description close to the text
Condensed meaning unit
Interpretation of the
underlying meaning
Sub-theme Theme
Nurses here used to use bad languages to us but now they are getting better. They welcome us in a polite language, not like before when they used to shout at us in the labor room. These days if you feel the pain and call them, they come and listen. Before they used to scream at us and treat us as children Improving staff attitudes Nurses being more respectful to patients Experiences with RCH services Experiences with health care services in the context of P4P
When I gave birth in 2006 there was a tendency were nurses can leave you unattended in labor. They would ask you whether it is your first birth or not and if it wasn’t then they can leave you. Nurses leaving patients unattended Nurses abandoning care
RCH services are good when you come here you are treated in a good way until you give birth and discharged. The out-patient department and other places are still the same; at RCH we can see more tools and medicines coming RCH services are better RCH offering better services
Kwa kweli the relationship among nurses here is good, before we used to leave this place at 4 pm, but now we are getting our services timely. We don’t stay here for long now, its only today we are still here because they had a meeting Waiting time is becoming less Shortened patient waiting time
It’s hard to find money, we are asked to buy the delivery kit and many of us can’t afford this. If you come without this you don’t get help. Cannot afford care Lack of money Barriers for accessing care
The facilities here are poor; first and foremost, the toilets are very dirty, we don’t even know who is supposed to clean them. If you decide to go there right now, you won’t believe your eyes. Dirty toilets Poor facilities
What I heard is that it is a must for every pregnant woman to come with her own equipment for birth. I do not understand if the government is not providing these things Pregnant women buying own delivery kit Lack of equipments & supplies
We used to have one medical attendant doing everything including what the doctor is doing now. We always wish if the government can help us by providing another staff, maybe we can get help quickly Few health workers available Lack of enough staff