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Table 4 Priority indicators of liveability for immediate, medium-, and long-term action

From: What is the meaning of urban liveability for a city in a low-to-middle-income country? Contextualising liveability for Bangkok, Thailand

Indicator and referencesMost useful measureData custodian (if known)
Indicators for immediate action
 Crime [43,44,45, 47,48,49,50]Criminal cases per 100,000 personsCentral Information Technology CentreRoyal Thai Police DataNational Statistical Office
 Tree coverage [49, 51]Number of green areasDepartment of Environment (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)
 Air quality [43, 45, 49, 52, 53]Nitrogen dioxide in the air (ppm)Dust/suspended particles in the air – micrograms/m3Department of Environment (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)
 Water qualitya [43, 50, 52, 53]Number of canal water quality testing points showing dissolved oxygen content of ≥2.0 mL/LDepartment of Drainage and Sewerage (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)
 FloodingNumber of floods per yearDepartment of Drainage and Sewerage (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)
 Access to temples [43, 44]Number of temples per district areaDistrict Office (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)
 Access to schools [44, 50, 54]Number of schools per 1000 residents(N.B: both primary and secondary schools)District Office (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)Department of Education (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)Ministry of Education
 Waste management [44, 45, 51,52,53]Average volume (kg) per household of non-recyclable garbageDepartment of Environment (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)District Office (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)
Indicators for medium-term action
 Sense of community [47,48,49]Ratio of community population to district populationDistrict Office (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)Department of Social Development (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)Strategy and Evaluation Department (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)
 Job securityUnemployment rateMinistry of LabourThe Revenue DepartmentNational Statistical Office
 Income [44, 45]Average monthly household incomeThe Revenue DepartmentNational Statistical Office
 Education [44, 45]Percentage of residents with a primary school educationCensus
 Health [44, 45, 50]Average life expectancyNumber of cases of mental and behavioural disordersWHO (2016)Health Department (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)
 Local employment [44]Percentage of residents living and working in the same districtDistrict Office (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)
 Quality foodPercentage of samples of food that is in accordance with health and hygiene standardsHealth Department (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)
 Traffic congestion [45]Number of vehicles per kilometre of city roadsTraffic and Transport Department (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)Department of Land Transport (BKK)
 Seweragea [42, 45, 52]Percentage of population with sewerage at their dwellingDepartment of Drainage and sewerage (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)District Office (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)
Indicators for long-term action
 Areas for passive recreation and physical activity [43,44,45, 47, 50, 51, 55]Percentage of residents living < 400 m of public open spacePercentage of residents living < 400 m of a large park (>  1.5 ha)Percentage of residents living < 400 m of local parkDistrict Office (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)Department of Environment (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)
 Public transport [44, 45, 50, 51, 55]Percentage of residents living < 400 m of a local bus stopPercentage of residents living < 800 m of train stationTraffic and Transport Department (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)District Office (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)
 Housing affordability [44, 45]Percentage of land being used for informal housingNational Housing AuthorityDepartment of LandsDistrict Office (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)
 Work/Life balanceNumber of hours of working per day and per weekNumber of hours per week engaged in leisure activitiesMinistry of LabourMinistry of Social development and Human SecurityCulture Sport and Tourism Department
 Access to community centres [44]Percentage of residents living < 400 m of community centreDistrict Office (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)Department of City Planning (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)
 Neighbourhood amenity [44, 51, 54, 55]Percentage of residents living near locally-defined ‘social infrastructure’ (37)District Office (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)Department of City Planning (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)
 Drinking water qualitya [42,43,44,45]Percentage of population with piped waterHealth Department (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)
 Access to liquefied petroleum gasa [44]Liquefied petroleum gas connections per householdMinistry of Energy
  1. NB: Within each category (immediate, medium-term, and long-term), indicators are not listed in any particular order. All indicators in this table were first identified by the BMA working group as relevant to Bangkok’s context, then reviewed by BMA key informants for prioritisation into immediate, medium-term, and long-term action. Prioritisation was based on indicator importance for the BMA and the timeframes within which data would become available
  2. aIndicator was not a salient theme of the Urban Liveability Workshop, but was identified as an important aspect of liveability in the international literature