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Table 1 Themes identified for explaining why universities establish interuniversity global health partnerships organised by Clark’s elements and a new element

From: The international partner universities of East African health professional programmes: why do they do it and what do they value?

Clark Element Theme Explaining an Interest in Partnering with Focus Universities in East Africa Types of Activities
Steering/Managerial Core, includes central administration, Deans and Chairs Internationalisation by way of “global health” • Seed funding
• Establish policies
• Memorandum of Understandings (MOUs)
• Prioritize/institutionalize specific partnerships at the department of faculty level.
• Visit international partners
Academic Heartland – research & training Conduct research
• Access to expertise (knowledge) or an opportunity that their institution or country lacks.
• Essential to mandate
Education – respond to trainee interest
• Towards post-graduate degrees (Master’s & PhDs), publications, expanded research network
• Novel research in tropical medicine
• Secure sites for trainee placements (undergraduate and Master’s) for service placements, exposure to research methods, electives, practicums).
Development Periphery – centres and programmes engaged in outreach Global Health Centres/Institutes explore, develop, coordinate and support activities and partnerships to achieve stated objectives set by the Steering Core • International partnerships and networking
• Provide and support opportunities of interest to Academic Heartland
Diversified Funding Base – additional to traditional government sources and overhead from research grants Funding a
• Second stream – soft money
• Third stream – soft money or discretionary funds
• Grants and contracts from research councils
• Local government, philanthropic, foundations, student fees
New Element
Global Health as equality – belief that quality health care should be available universally.b Social Responsibility
• Addressing the higher-burden of disease and health inequity in a manner that builds and/or strengthens health professional programmes in LMICs
• Establishment of new degree programmes
• Support the use of new pedagogy institutional-wide
• Fully-funded exchange opportunities for students of their international partner
• Infrastructure development (help secure funding for new buildings (e.g. hospital, laboratories)
• Service delivery (i.e. patient care)
  1. a Federal/national government research grants represent second-stream funding. Clark refers to third-stream funding as, “true financial diversification” [Clark (1998), p. 6)] and states in a later publication “there is no limit to the possibilities of third-stream income in its many substreams” [Clark (2001, p.14]. First-stream funding is government funding from “a governmental ministry” [(Ibid) p. 12]