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Table 1 Definition of value of volunteering in the “volunteering onion” (Fig. 2)

From: The value of international volunteers experience to the NHS

  Current models
Labor input Number of volunteers
Economic Value Replacement theory: the value of the labor input - VIVA: The Volunteer Investment and Value Audit [30] - ILO Manual on the measurement of volunteer work [31]
Private value Well-being theory: the value of increased life satisfaction, including learning, achievement and personal health [17]
Social value Social capital theory: benefits derived from formal opportunity structures or activities where individual actors develop social ties and social networks