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Table 4 Relationship between public health law coverage and health-related SDG statistics

From: Public health law coverage in support of the health-related sustainable development goals (SDGs) among 33 Western Pacific countries

Categories Health Indicators Mean ± SD Correlation Coefficient (r) R2 Beta P-value*
Life expectancy Life expectancy at birth (years) 73.6 ± 6.5 0.47 0.18 0.39 0.03
Health life expectancy at birth (years) 65.5 ± 5.7 0.47 0.18 0.33 0.04
SDGs Index Total SDGs index score 69.4 ± 7.1 0.47 0.13 0.45 0.15
Health-related SDGs Index 60.3 ± 13.8 0.43 0.14 0.24 0.05
SDGs 3.1 Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live birth) 73.9 ± 64.1 −0.53 0.25 −4.35 0.01
Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel (%) 91.3 ± 14.9 0.15 −0.02 0.27 0.48
SDGs 3.2 Under-five mortality rate (per 1000 live births) 23.2 ± 17.2 −0.37 0.10 −0.81 0.06
Neonatal mortality rate (per 1000 live births) 12.0 ± 8.0 −0.44 0.16 −0.44 0.02
SDGs 3.3 New HIV infections among adults 15–49 years old (per 1000 uninfected population) 0.86 ± 1.26 0.78 0.53 −5.88 0.04
TB incidence (per 100,000 population) 148.1 ± 140.5 −0.05 −0.04 −1.11 0.79
Malaria incidence (per 1000 population at risk) 25.5 ± 42.1 0.51 0.16 −0.11 0.16
Infants receiving three doses of hepatitis B vaccine (%) 88.0 ± 13.3 0.21 0.02 0.34 0.32
Reported number of people requiring interventions against NTDs 2,480,194
±8,544,180
0.12 0.01 126, 180 0.57
SDGs 3.4 Probability of dying from any of CVD, cancer, diabetes, CRD between age 30 and 70 (%) 20.9 ± 8.6 −0.37 0.09 −0.40 0.10
Suicide mortality rate (per 100,000 population) 11.0 ± 7.3 0.34 0.07 0.32 0.13
SDGs 3.5 Total alcohol per capita (≥15 years of age) consumption (litres of pure alcohol), projected estimates 4.8 ± 3.4 0.45 0.17 0.20 0.02
SDGs 3.6 Road traffic mortality rate (per 100,000 population) 11.9 ± 7.5 0.08 −0.04 0.08 0.71
SDGs 3.7 Proportion of married or in-union women of reproductive age who have their need for family planning satisfied with modern methods (%) 54.2 ± 13.4 0.52 0.20 0.31 0.07
Adolescent birth rate (per 1000 women aged 15–19 years) 39.8 ± 28.8 −0.40 0.12 −1.49 0.04
SDGs 3.8 UHC service coverage index 63.9 ± 13.5 0.50 0.21 0.86 0.02
Population with house hold expenditures on health > 10% of total household expenditure or income (%) 5.85 ± 4.08 0.66 0.29 0.54 0.16
Population with house hold expenditures on health > 25% of total household expenditure or income (%) 1.45 ± 1.40 0.06 −0.25 0.00 0.91
SDGs 3.9 Mortality rate attributed to household and ambient air pollution (per 100,000 population) 51.4 ± 42.9 0.04 −0.08 0.20 0.89
Mortality rate attributed to exposure to unsafe WASH services (per 100,000 population) 3.8 ± 4.8 −0.50 0.19 −0.29 0.06
Mortality rate attributed to unintentional poisoning (per 100,000 population) 0.9 ± 0.6 −0.23 0.01 −0.02 0.29
SDGs 3.a Age-standardized prevalence of tobacco smoking among persons 15 years and older (%) 34. 9 ± 18.0 0.20 −0.02 −0.09 0.41
SDGs 3.b Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DPTs) immunization coverage among 1-year-olds (%) 88.3 ± 12.8 0.24 0.02 0.40 0.23
Total net official development assistance to medical research and basic health per capita (constant 2014 US$) by recipient country 6.00 ± 5.2 0.39 0.11 −0.27 0.09
SDGs 3.c Skilled health professional density (per 10,000 population) 60.9 ± 41.8 0.16 −0.02 0.83 0.45
SDGs 3.d Average of 13 International Health Regulations core capacity scores 78.3 ± 19.8 0.54 0.26 1.35 0.004
SDGs 1.a General government health expenditure as % of general government expenditure 12.4 ± 6.1 0.19 −0.01 0.15 0.36
SDGs 2.2 Prevalence of stunting in children under 5 (%) 21.5 ± 14.3 0.44 0.14 −0.27 0.89
Prevalence of wasting in children under 5 (%) 5.2 ± 3.7 0.16 −0.05 −0.39 0.57
Prevalence of overweight in children under 5 (%) 12.0 ± 22.6 0.25 −0.01 0.63 0.36
SDGs 6.1 Proportion of population using improved drinking water sources (%) 88.8 ± 15.6 0.21 0.05 0.44 0.33
SDGs 6.2 Proportion of population using improved sanitation (%) 74.1 ± 26.2 0.39 0.11 1.31 0.06
SDGs 7.1 Proportion of population with primary reliance on clean fuels 55.1 ± 34.8 0.31 0.06 1.35 0.13
SDGs 11.6 Annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in urban areas) 16.7 ± 10.3 0.41 0.11 0.49 0.10
SDGs 13.1 Average death rate due to natural disasters (per 100,000 population) 0.8 ± 1.1 −0.08 −0.05 −0.01 0.72
SDGs 16.1 Mortality rate due to homicide (per 100,000 population) 4.3 ± 3.5 −0.04 −0.05 − 0.02 0.86
Estimated direct deaths from major conflicts (per 100,000 population) 0.09 ± 0.2 0.08 −0.05 0.00 0.72
SDGs 17.1 Completeness of cause-of-death data (%) 88.8 ± 17.0 −0.22 − 0.04 −0.56 0.46
  1. *p-value level of statistical significance ≤0.05
  2. If the value is statistically significant, it is marked in bold