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Table 3 Risk factors for cardio-metabolic diseases in home and host countries

From: Cardio-metabolic disease risk factors among South Asian labour migrants to the Middle East: a scoping review and policy analysis

NCD Risk Factorsa Sample size Alcohol use Tobacco use Low physical activity Low fruits and vegetable consumption Diabetes Hypertension Hyperglycemia Hypercholesterolemia Overweight/Obesity Mean BMI Ref
Home countries
Nepal (2013) 4143 adults aged 15–69 years 17.4% 18.5% 3.5% 98.9% 3.6% 25.7% 4.1% 22.7% 21.6% overweight and 4.0% obese 22.4 [47]
India (2008) 38,064 adults aged 15- 64 years [49] 5.8 to 14.3% [49] 9.5 to 44.0% [49] 42.3 to 81.2% [49] 75.7 to 98.9% [49]   16.6 to 21.1% [49] 0.6 to 5.9% [49] 27.1% [50] 9.7 to 25.7% overweight, 1.8 to 8.0% obese [49] 20.1 to 22.7 [49] [49, 50]
Pakistan (2014) 7710 adults aged 18–69 years 13.9% 41.5% 96.5% 3.4% 37.0% 1.5% 41.3% overweight and 14.9% obese 24.5 [44]
Bangladesh (2010) 9275 adults aged 25 years and above 0.9% (66.7% of this population engaged in binge-drinking) 26.2% 27.0% 95.7% 3.9% self-reported 17.9% 17.6% overweight 21.5 [43]
Bhutan (2014) 2822 adults aged 18–69 years 42.4% 7.4% 6.4% (51.5% physical inactivity in 2010 a/c to country profile annexed in Oxford report) 66.9% 6.4% 35.7% 10.7% 12.5% 33.0% overweight and 6.2% obese 24 [45]
Afghanistan (2008) 0.7% 22.5% 2.2% obese [51]
Sri Lanka (2015) 5188 adults aged 18–69 years 17.9% 15.0% 30.4% 72.5% 7.4% 26.1% 3.8% 23.7% 29.3% overweight and 5.9% obese 22.9 [48]
Maldives (2011) 1780 adults aged 15–64 years 0.9% 18.8% 45.9% 93.6% 4.7% 16.6% 6.2% in 2010 a/c to country profile annexed in Oxford report) 37.1% overweight and 11.5% obese 23.7 [46]
Host Countries
Qatar (2012) 2496 adults aged 18–64 years 16.4% 45.9% 91.1% 16.7% 16.4% 5.8% 21.9% 70.1% overweight and 41.4% obese 29.2 [28]
Saudi Arabia (2005) 5000 adults aged 15–64 years 24.2% men and 1.4% women 67.7% 91.6% men and 95.3% women 15.8% men and 14.9% women 21.3% total, 24.2% men and 18.5% women 19.6% men and 17.1% women; 18.3% total 18.6% men and 19.7% women (≥5.2 mmol/L) 37.9% men overweight, and 28.3% men obese; 27.6% women overweight, 43.8% women obese 27.0 for men and 29.1 for women [52]
UAE (2014–2016)   28.0% among men and 0.9% among women in 2016 among adults aged 18 years or above [53] 30.2% in 2016 [54] 8.0% total, 7.8% men and 8.5% women in 2016 [54] 19.1% total, 21.1% men and 13.3% women in 2014 [55] 70.6% overweight and 34.5% obese in 2016 4 [54] [53,54,55]
Jordan (2007) 3654 adults aged 18 years and over 0.9% 29.0% 5.2% 14.2% 16.0% 25.5% 23.8% 36.1% 67.4% overweight,36.5% obese 28.5 [56]
Lebanon (2010) 1982 adults aged 25–64 years 20.5% 38.5% 45.8% 11.2% 13.4% 17.9% 71.9% 65.4% overweight or obese 27.5 [27]
Kuwait (2015) 4391 adults aged 18–69 years 0.8% 20.5% 62.6% 83.8% 14.6% 25.1% 6.1% 55.9% 77.2% overweight and 40.2% obese 29.4 [29]
Bahrain (2007) 1769 adults aged 20 to 64 years 19.9% 14.3% 38.2% 12.0% 40.6% 32.9% overweight and 36.3% obese 28.54(6.4) [57]
  1. aOnly STEPS surveys results have been used for the table, as this increases comparability with exceptions where data were not available
  2. Definitions of variables used in the table: Alcohol use (consumed alcohol in the past 30 days); Tobacco use (smokes tobacco in any form either daily or occasionally at the time of the survey);Low physical activity (< 600 MET-minutes per week or < 150 min of moderate-intensity activity per week);Low fruits and vegetable consumption (ate less than 5 servings of fruit and/or vegetables on average per day);Diabetes (plasma venous value ≥126 mg/dl or ≥ _7.0 mmol/L or currently on medication for raised blood glucose);Hypertension (SBP ≥ 140 and/or DBP ≥ 90);Hyperglycemia (percentage with raised fasting blood glucose value ≥110 mg/dl and < 126 mg/dl or ≥ 6.1 mmol/L or currently on medication for raised blood glucose);Hypercholesterolemia (percentage with raised total cholesterol ≥5.0 mmol/L or ≥ 190 mg/dl or currently on medication for raised cholesterol);Overweight (≥25 kg/m2 or Obesity ≥30 kg/m2