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Table 1 A literature review on the prevalence of cardio-metabolicdiseases in south Asian migrants and host population in the Middle East

From: Cardio-metabolic disease risk factors among South Asian labour migrants to the Middle East: a scoping review and policy analysis

Name of the Study Study Method Prevalence of Diseases Risk Factors Current Understanding Future Directions Ref
Hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control, in male South Asian immigrants in the United Arab Emirates: a cross-sectional study. A cross-sectional study among 1375 South Asian (Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi) adult (≥18 years) male migrant worker at a government visa screening center in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The prevalence of hypertension was 30.5%. In an adjusted analysis, factors associated with participants’ hypertension status were overweight (OR = 1.43; 95% CI 1.01, 2.01); obesity (OR = 2.49; 95% CI: 1.51, 4.10); central obesity (OR = 2.01; 95% CI 1.37, 2.92); family history of hypertension (OR = 1.51; 95% CI 1.05, 2.17); and walking less than 30 min daily (OR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.24, 2.60). The prevalence of hypertension among young male South Asian immigrants living in the UAE was high. The awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension within this population were very low. Future initiatives need to consider the sociocultural, religious, ethnic, and educational diversity of this population in the design, development, and implementation of campaigns, interventions, and strategies. Strategies to improve the awareness and control of hypertension among the migrant workers in the UAE is necessary. The public health interventions should target the maintenance of a healthy body size and regular assessment of blood pressure among these populations. [23]
Association between acculturation, obesity and cardiovascular risk factors among male South Asian migrants in the United Arab Emirates – a cross-sectional study Cross-sectional study among 1375 South Asian (Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi) male migrant worker at a visa health screening center in Abu Dhabi (UAE) The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes was 30.5 and 9% respectively. The crude prevalence of overweight, obesity, and central obesity in South Asian immigrants were 35.4, 9.4, and 63.4% respectively. Overall a small proportion of the study participants reported moderate 26.7% and vigorous, 18.2% physical activity. About 62% never had their blood pressure measured. Around 44% of participants with diabetes and 76% of those with hypertension were not aware of their status. Overweight, central obesity and hypertension were highly prevalent amongst young South Asian male migrants in the UAE. A diminished ‘Healthy Migrant Effect’ with increased years of residency was observed possibly due to greater acculturation and a transition in lifestyle behaviors. A validated, contextual- and culturally-specific multidimensional instrument to measure acculturation among South Asian migrant populations in the UAE is lacking. Health initiatives targeting the maintenance of a healthy body size, coupled with regular assessments of glucose control and blood pressure are urgently required in this population. [24]
Is Migration Affecting Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Hypertension of Men in Kerala, India? A community-based cross-sectional study among 191 male Gulf migrants and 193 non-migrant workers aged 25–64 years in the Kerala state of India. Gulf countries in the study included UAE, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Kuwait, and Bahrain. Age adjusted hypertension Prevalence was 57.6% among migrants and 31.7% among non-migrants. In adjusted analysis, migrants were more likely to be hypertensive (OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.83–4.94) than non-migrants. Awareness (migrants vs. non-migrants: 43.5% vs. 56.9%, p = 0.109), treatment (migrants vs. non-migrants: 34% vs. 53%, p < 0.05), and control (migrants vs. non-migrants: 12% vs.48%, p < 0.001) of hypertension was lower among migrants compared to non-migrants. Most of the NCD risk factors were higher among migrants compared to non-migrants, although they were not associated with higher prevalence of hypertension among them. Hypertension was highly prevalent among migrants compared to non-migrants. Comparatively fewer migrants than non-migrants had treatment of hypertension or had hypertension under control. Risk factors for hypertension were significantly higher among migrants compared to non-migrants. The role of stress in the prevalence of hypertension needs to be explored. Efforts should be made to control hypertension prevalence and increase treatment and control of hypertension among migrants along with strategies to reduce the major risk factors such as obesity and low fruits and vegetable consumption. [25]
Prevalence of Diabetes among Migrant Women and Duration of Residence in the United Arab Emirates: A Cross Sectional Study Cross-sectional study among 599 migrants (Filipinos, Arabs and South Asians) women aged 18 years and over at a visa screening center in Al Ain, UAE. South Asians included Indian, Bangladeshis, and Pakistanis. The prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes among South Asians migrant women were 30.3 and 16.7% respectively. In adjusted analysis, significant correlates of diabetes included residence in UAE for more than 10 years (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.21–6.20), age 40 years (OR = 3.48, 95% CI: 1.53–7.87) and South Asian nationality (OR 2.10, 95% CI: 0.94–4.70). Diabetes was highly prevalent among migrant women in the UAE, particularly South Asians. The longer length of residence in UAE is associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes. After ten years of residence, migrant women have three times the prevalence of diabetes compared with more recent arrivals. There is a lack of validated instruments to measure acculturation amongst migrants in the Gulf region. Future research may aim to develop a contextually and culturally appropriate tool. Further research is required to investigate the dietary and behavioral factors that are contributing to the upward trend in overweight, obesity, and diabetes in migrant women in the UAE. Interventions aimed at the maintenance of a healthy body size and regular assessment of glucose control is recommended. [26]