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Table 2 Sample characteristics, N = 212,258

From: Agricultural trade policies and child nutrition in low- and middle-income countries: a cross-national analysis

  Total Non-agricultural ≥  1 parent self-employed agriculture ≥  1 parent earning wages agriculture Parents unemployed P-valuea
Mean (Std. Dev) / Proportion
 Child’s Characteristics
  Height-for-age Z-score −1.64 (1.78) −1.41 (1.76) − 1.87 (1.74) −1.83 (1.85) − 1.51 (1.72) < 0.001
  Child is stunted 42.06% 35.68% 48.57% 47.94% 38.27% < 0.001
  Weight-for-age Z-scoreb −1.15 (1.45) −0.90 (1.43) −1.39 (1.40) − 1.46 (1.47) − 0.96 (1.39) < 0.001
  Child is underweightb 26.44% 20.72% 31.30% 34.41% 21.18% < 0.001
  Weight-for-height Z-scorec −0.35 (1.51) −0.18 (1.51) − 0.50 (1.48) −0.59 (1.53) − 0.18 (1.49) < 0.001
  Child is wastedc 12.71% 10.40% 14.44% 16.53% 10.11% < 0.001
  Child’s sex (Male) 50.60% 50.86% 50.17% 50.63% 51.50% 0.021
  Child’s Age (months) 19.85 (8.63) 20.00 (8.65) 19.69 (8.62) 19.93 (8.59) 18.55 (8.61) < 0.001
  Child is a multiple birth 2.16% 2.17% 2.32% 1.81% 1.99% < 0.001
  Child is first born 24.33% 29.47% 17.67% 19.35% 48.58% < 0.001
  Months of breastfeeding 15.24 (7.13) 14.60 (7.16) 15.91 (6.92) 15.93 (7.36) 14.09 (6.73) < 0.001
  Fever in last two weeks 33.50% 31.12% 39.08% 28.09% 35.93% < 0.001
  Diarrhea in last two weeks 21.24% 19.32% 24.25% 20.28% 22.35% < 0.001
  Vaccinations in first year 46.61% 48.68% 47.54% 37.45% 50.82% < 0.001
 Mother’s Characteristics
  Mother’s Age (years) 27.47 (6.51) 27.03 (5.96) 28.18 (7.00) 27.68 (6.76) 24.55 (6.37) < 0.001
  Maternal education (years) 4.16 (4.64) 6.02 (5.07) 2.37 (3.23) 2.20 (3.43) 5.14 (4.37) < 0.001
  Maternal BMI (kg/m2) 22.12 (4.29) 23.10 (4.90) 21.21 (3.19) 21.07 (3.67) 22.37 (4.18) < 0.001
  Mother’s total number of children 3.54 (2.40) 3.02 (2.07) 4.16 (2.61) 3.90 (2.51) 2.51 (2.06) < 0.001
 Mother’s marital status < 0.001
  Never married 2.54% 2.15% 1.54% 0.76% 35.39%
  Married 84.09% 84.89% 83.24% 88.29% 54.01%
  Living with partner 8.90% 8.52% 10.35% 7.39% 5.39%
  Widowed 0.93% 0.75% 1.12% 0.99% 1.59%
  Divorced 1.09% 0.96% 1.40% 0.81% 0.13%
  No longer living together 2.44% 2.72% 2.36% 1.76% 2.49%
 Household Characteristics
  Urban 31.54% 54.91% 8.37% 8.59% 44.96% < 0.001
 Wealth quintile < 0.001
  Lowest 22.04% 12.14% 29.41% 37.09% 17.12%
  Second 21.36% 15.67% 26.79% 27.57% 17.22%
  Middle 20.75% 19.43% 23.39% 19.15% 19.77%
  Fourth 19.50% 24.83% 15.16% 12.22% 22.11%
  Highest 16.34% 27.92% 5.25% 3.97% 23.79%
Improved water 62.73% 78.85% 43.31% 54.75% 70.38% < 0.001
Improved sanitation 23.75% 38.98% 5.73% 16.11% 27.13% < 0.001
 Parental occupation
  Non-agricultural 47.80%      
  At least one parent self-employed in agriculture 34.32%      
  At least one parent earning wages in agriculture 15.42%      
  Parents unemployed 2.46%      
  1. aP-values are for categorical variables are from Pearson’s chi-squared test. P-values for continuous variables are from Kruskal-Wallis test
  2. b Sample size for weight-for-age Z-scores and underweight is 208,691 children
  3. c Sample size for weight-for-height Z-scores and wasting is 205,556