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Table 4 Multiple regression fixed effects models with GDP-squared, all countries

From: What is driving global obesity trends? Globalization or “modernization”?

  All countries
Total Female Male
(Coef, CI) (Coef, CI) (Coef, CI)
Real GDP per capita (1000 2005US$), PPP 5 yr. lag 0.0022 −0.0115*** 0.0159***
[−0.0020,0.0063] [−0.0169,-0.0062] [0.0122,0.0196]
GDP pc PPP-Squared −0.0001*** − 0.00001 −0.0002***
[−0.0001,-0.0001] [−0.0001,0.0000] [− 0.0002,-0.0001]
Economic Globalization, 5 yr. lag − 0.0676 −0.13 − 0.0052
[−0.2528,0.1176] [− 0.3671,0.1071] [− 0.1699,0.1594]
Cultural Globalization, 5 yr. lag 0.0062 −1.0211*** 1.0335***
[−0.2032,0.2157] [−1.2893,-0.7529] [0.8473,1.2198]
Women political empowerment index, 5 yr. lag 0.5638*** 0.5391*** 0.5885***
[0.3986,0.7290] [0.3276,0.7506] [0.4416,0.7353]
Democracy, 5 yr. lag −0.0163*** − 0.0147*** −0.0179***
[−0.0192,-0.0134] [−0.0184,-0.0110] [− 0.0205,-0.0153]
Urban Population (%), 5 yr. lag 0.0203*** 0.0245*** 0.0161***
[0.0168,0.0238] [0.0200,0.0290] [0.0130,0.0193]
Fat supply (g/capita/day), 2 yr. lag −0.1775 − 0.5731 0.2181
[−0.7253,0.3704] [−1.2745,0.1283] [−0.2689,0.7052]
Protein supply (g/capita/day), 2 yr. lag 5.2939*** 6.3268*** 4.2610***
[4.5682,6.0196] [5.3978,7.2559] [3.6159,4.9061]
Carbon Dioxide Emissions (Tons per Capita), 2 yr. lag 0.0249*** 0.0232*** 0.0266***
[0.0192,0.0306] [0.0158,0.0305] [0.0215,0.0317]
_cons 21.1671*** 21.5536*** 20.7805***
  [20.9555,21.3786] [21.2827,21.8245] [20.5924,20.9686]
r2 0.8224 0.7798 0.8237
N 4206 4206 4206
  1. *time fixed effects entered but not shown. Significance level: * p < .05, ** for p < .01, and *** for p < .001