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Table 2 Participants’ social and health-related characteristics by income levels of countries of origin

From: Assessment of the health status and health service perceptions of international migrants coming to Guangzhou, China, from high-, middle- and low-income countries

  LICs MICs HICs All P value
204 (17.8%) 654 (57.1%) 288 (25.1%) 1146
Social integration in China
 Has a Chinese name 0.433
  No 115 (56.9) 340 (52.3) 148 (51.4) 603 (52.9)
  Yes 87 (43.1) 310 (47.7) 140 (48.6) 537 (47.1)
 Has education experience in China < 0.001abc
  No 97 (47.8) 377 (57.8) 194 (67.6) 668 (58.5)
  Yes 106 (52.2) 275 (42.2) 93 (32.4) 474 (41.5)
 Proficiency in Mandarin 0.316
  Know nothing 45 (22.8) 109 (18.0) 58 (20.3) 212 (19.5)
  Know little 82 (41.6) 236 (39.1) 114 (39.9) 432 (39.8)
  Fair 46 (23.4) 176 (29.1) 74 (25.9) 296 (27.2)
  Fluent 24 (12.2) 83 (13.7) 40 (14.0) 147 (13.5)
 Proficiency in English 0.094
  Know nothing 6 (2.9) 20 (3.1) 4 (1.4) 30 (2.7)
  Know little 33 (16.2) 73 (11.4) 50 (17.7) 156 (13.8)
  Fair 61 (29.9) 191 (29.8) 58 (20.5) 310 (27.5)
  Fluent 104 (51.0) 358 (55.8) 171 (60.4) 633 (56.1)
Social network in China
 Number of Chinese acquaintances in Guangzhou 0.107
  0–10 95 (47.0) 232 (35.5) 113 (39.4) 440 (38.5)
  11–50 51 (25.2) 209 (32.0) 81 (28.2) 341 (29.8)
  51≤ 56 (27.7) 213 (32.6) 93 (32.4) 362 (31.7)
 Number of fellow townsmen known in Guangzhou < 0.001bc
  0–10 94 (47.7) 302 (47.6) 186 (65.5) 582 (52.2)
  11–50 49 (24.9) 193 (30.4) 65 (22.9) 307 (27.5)
  51≤ 54 (27.4) 140 (22.0) 33 (11.6) 227 (20.3)
 Participation in hometown associations/the Chamber of Commerce in Guangzhou 0.061
  No 156 (77.2) 529 (82.1) 243 (85.6) 928 (82.1)
  Yes 46 (22.8) 115 (17.9) 41 (14.4) 202 (17.9)
Health status and perception of health services
 Perceived health status < 0.001ab
  Poor or fair 13 (6.5) 65 (9.9) 41 (14.2) 119 (10.4)
  Good 64 (31.8) 274 (41.9) 117 (40.6) 455 (39.8)
  Very good 124 (61.7) 315 (48.2) 130 (45.1) 569 (49.8)
 Change in health status since coming to China < 0.001abc
  Became less healthy 15 (7.5) 115 (17.6) 57 (19.8) 187 (16.4)
  No change 135 (67.2) 412 (63.1) 204 (70.8) 751 (65.8)
  Became healthier 51 (25.4) 126 (19.3) 27 (9.4) 204 (17.9)
 Ever had health problems in China < 0.001ac
  No/first time to China 182 (89.2) 513 (78.9) 207 (71.9) 902 (79.0)
  Yes 22 (10.8) 137 (21.1) 81 (28.1) 240 (21.0)
 Had medical insurance while staying in China < 0.001bc
  No 117 (57.6) 331 (51.4) 108 (37.8) 556 (49.1)
  Yes 68 (33.5) 204 (31.7) 150 (52.4) 422 (37.2)
  Don’t know 18 (8.9) 109 (16.9) 28 (9.8) 155 (13.7)
 Overall perception of health services in China < 0.001bc
  Poor 14 (7.0) 57 (8.9) 63 (22.8) 134 (12.0)
  Fair (not good or bad) 78 (39.0) 278 (43.4) 146 (52.9) 502 (45.0)
  Good 108 (54.0) 305 (47.7) 67 (24.3) 480 (43.0)
  1. aDifferences between participants from LICs and those from MICs were statistically significant
  2. bDifferences between participants from MICs and those from HICs were statistically significant
  3. cDifferences between participants from LICs and those from HICs were statistically significant