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Table 3 Risk factors associated with diabetes-related mortality rates per 100,000 persons by country income level (high-, middle-, and low-income) among individuals aged ≥15 years by sex

From: Sex differences and risk factors for diabetes mellitus - an international study from 193 countries

Rate of risk factor per 100,000 persons 1995 2005 2015
M F Ratio (M:F) p-value M F Ratio (M:F) p-value M F Ratio (M:F) p-value
Globally
 High BMI 10.0 13.6 0.7 0.77 11.8 15.0 0.8 0.77 13.9 15.3 0.9 0.77
 Dietary risks 13.0 13.4 1.0 1.00 14.2 14.2 1.0 0.77 15.4 13.1 1.2 0.56
 Low physical activity 4.7 4.4 1.1 0.77 5.2 4.5 1.1 0.77 5.8 4.4 1.3 0.56
 Smoking 3.5 0.3 13.0 0.1 3.5 0.2 15.5 < 0.01 3.4 0.2 19.4 < 0.01
High-income countries
 High BMI 9.6 10.7 0.9 0.80 11.3 10.0 1.1 0.40 10.8 8.1 1.3 0.15
 Dietary risks 8.8 8.2 1.1 0.39 9.9 7.6 1.3 0.07 8.9 6.4 1.4 < 0.01
 Low physical activity 3.5 3.7 0.9 1.00 3.9 3.7 1.0 0.41 3.4 3.3 1.1 0.20
 Smoking 2.1 0.2 8.8 < 0.01 1.9 0.2 10.4 < 0.01 1.6 0.2 10.3 < 0.01
Middle-income countries
 High BMI 12.3 18.0 0.7 < 0.01 14.3 21.5 0.7 0.01 16.4 20.0 0.8 0.07
 Dietary risks 14.4 16.0 0.9 0.67 15.1 16.3 0.9 0.72 15.9 15.7 1.0 0.69
 Low physical activity 4.8 4.9 1.0 0.96 5.8 5.4 1.1 0.90 5.9 5.61 1.1 0.45
 Smoking 3.0 0.2 15.8 < 0.01 3.3 0.2 15.2 < 0.01 3.3 0.2 19.1 < 0.01
Low-income countries
 High BMI 4.8 7.5 0.6 0.28 6.4 10.0 0.7 0.08 6.9 10.7 0.6 0.08
 Dietary risks 9.7 11.4 0.9 0.58 10.7 12.4 0.9 0.67 11.1 12.2 0.9 0.61
 Low physical activity 3.1 2.7 1.2 0.18 3.5 2.9 1.2 0.25 4.0 3.1 1.3 0.24
 Smoking 1.3 0.1 15.1 < 0.01 1.4 0.1 20.1 < 0.01 1.6 0.1 21.1 < 0.01
  1. M Males, F Females