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Table 2 MSH country groupings, experiences and resources

From: Organizational capacities of national pharmacovigilance centres in Africa: assessment of resource elements associated with successful and unsuccessful pharmacovigilance experiences

MSH Group 1- Countries with minimal or no capacity for PV
Country Successful experiences Successful resources assigned Unsuccessful experiences Unsuccessful resources assigned
Angola • Deployment of PV focal persons to various regions of the country, thus decentralizing PV
• ADR reports received through positive collaboration with HIV and Malaria Programmes
• Funds received through collaboration with development partners
• Political resource
• Social resource
• Financial resource
• No PV law to enforce regulations
• No dedicated budget for PV
• No reporting tools
• Political resource
• Financial resource
• Technical resource
Burkina Faso • Regulatory framework implemented by government
• Deployment of PV focal persons to various regions of the country, thus decentralizing PV
• Establishment of national technical committees with tools for PV work
• Political resource
• Political resource
• Technical resource
• No properly recognized National Regulatory Authority
• No dedicated budget for PV
• No tools to embark on active monitoring
• Political resource
• Financial resource
• Technical resource
Cameroon • Funds received through collaboration with development partners
• Continuous receipt of PV literature through established relationship with development partners
• PV Decree signed by head of state and minister of health
• Financial resource
• Social resource
• Political resource
• No dedicated budget for PV
• Untrained PV staff
• No internet to submit ADR data to VigiFlow
• Financial resource
• Human resource
• Technical resource
Cape Verde • Deployment of PV focal persons to various regions of the country, thus decentralizing PV
• Improved reporting infrastructure through TV and radio campaigns
• Dissemination of ADR data through publication in peer review journals for Portuguese speaking countries
• Political resource
• Technical resource
• Technical resource
• No PV law to enforce regulations
• Inadequate reporting infrastructure
• No dedicated budget for PV
• Political resource
• Technical resource
• Financial resource
Eritrea • Funds received through collaboration with development partners
• Trained PV staff
• Deployment of PV focal persons to various regions of the country, thus decentralizing PV
• Financial resource
• Human resource
• Political resource
• No PV law to mandate reporting by industry
• Low AEFI reporting due to poor collaboration with EPI
• Pharma industry does not monitor the safety of their products
• Political resource
• Technical resource
• Political resource
Liberia • Trained PV staff
• Incorporation of PV into curriculum of educational institutions due to effective collaboration with Academia
• Availability of tools for active monitoring of drugs from international donors
• Human resource
• Social resource
• Technical resource
• No dedicated budget for PV
• Inadequate human resource for PV activities
• No PV law to enforce regulations
• Financial resource
• Human resource
• Political resource
Mauritius • Full membership in the PIDM due to positive collaboration with WHO
• Improved reporting infrastructure through collaboration with PHPs
• Technical support received through collaboration with development partners and PHPs
• Social resource
• Technical resource
• Social resource
• Inadequate reporting infrastructure
• No dedicated budget for PV
• No PV law to enforce regulations
• Technical resource
• Financial resource
• Political resource
Niger • Deployment of PV focal persons to various regions of the country, thus decentralizing PV
• Attending trainings with the Head of the NRA, facilitation of travel by Head of NRA
• Tools available to embark on district inspections
• Political resource
• Political resource
• Technical resource
• Inadequate human resource for PV activities
• Untrained PV staff
• No dedicated budget for PV
• Human resource
• Human resource
• Financial resource
MSH Group 2- Countries with basic organizational structures for PV
Country Successful experiences Successful resources assigned Unsuccessful experiences Unsuccessful resources assigned
Congo-DRC • Technical support received through collaboration with development partners and PHPs
• Introduction of android smartphones to communicate effectively with health practitioners
• More trained human resource from Implementation of Drug Therapeutic Committees(DTC)
• Social resource
• Technical resource
• Human resource
• Inadequate reporting infrastructure
• Untrained PV staff
• No dedicated budget for PV
• Technical resource
• Human resource
• Financial resource
Ethiopia • Trained PV staff
• Introduced PV into national curriculum, to train more human resource for PV
• Fulltime MSH employee placed at the national centre to help with PV activities
• Human resource
• Human resource
• Human resource
• Lack of accredited laboratories
• More human resources are needed to deliver on mandate
• Poor AEFI reporting infrastructure
• Technical resource
• Human resource
• Technical resource
Kenya • Two ministers of state took part in the launch of the PV system.
• Launch of online pharmacovigilance electronic reporting system
• Funds provided through joint post market surveillance with PHPs
• Political resource
• Technical resource
• Financial resource
• More human resources are needed to deliver on mandate
• Inadequate reporting infrastructure
• No PV law to enforce regulations
• Human resource
• Technical resource
• Political resource
Mozambique • Deployment of PV focal persons to various regions of the country, thus decentralizing PV
• Funds for training received through collaboration with WHO
• Availability of legal instruments to promote PV
• Political resource
• Financial resource
• Political resource
• Untrained PV staff
• No dedicated budget for PV
• Poor collaboration with PHPs
• Human resource
• Financial resource
• Social resource
Rwanda • Trained PV staff
• Implemented performance based evaluations for district hospitals
• Collaboration with AMRH and EAC-PV harmonization to promote PV activities
• Human resource
• Technical resource
• Social resource
• Inadequate human resource for PV activities
• No dedicated budget for PV
• Poor collaboration with PHPs
• Human resource
• Financial resource
• Social resource
Senegal • Trained PV staff
• Tools available for data analysis and data sharing
• Funds for training received through collaboration with NMCP
• Human resource
• Technical resource
• Financial resource
• No PV staff with data management expertise
• No PV representatives in the regions of the country, only the capital region
• No dedicated budget for PV
• Human resource
• Political resource
• Financial resource
Sierra Leone • Adjustment of malaria treatment due to strong collaboration with NMCP
• Deployment of PV focal persons to various regions of the country, thus decentralizing PV
• Introduced PV into national curriculum, to train more human resource for PV
• Social resource
• Political resource
• Human resource
• No dedicated budget for PV
• Inadequate reporting infrastructure
• No PV law to enforce regulations
• Financial resource
• Political resource
• Political resource
Zimbabwe • Donor funding available for PV related projects
• Guidance documents and publications available for PV work
• AEFI Surveillance systems established since 2001
• Financial resource
• Technical resource
• Technical resource
• No internet (Wi-Fi) services to submit data to VigiBase
• Inability to generate own funds
• Inadequate human resource for PV activities
• Technical resource
• Financial resource
• Human resource
Group 4- Countries with basic structures for passive and active surveillance
Country   Successful resources   Unsuccessful resources
Namibia • Ministry of Health gave the mandate to setup the national centre
• Active surveillance tools available for safety monitoring
• Implemented patient reporting system
• Political resource
• Technical resource
• Technical resource
• Inadequate human resource for PV activities
• No dedicated budget for PV
• Inadequate spontaneous reporting infrastructure
• Human resource
• Financial resource
• Technical resource
Nigeria • Active surveillance tools available for safety monitoring
• Funds for training received through collaboration with PHPs
• Guidance documents and publications available for PV work
• Technical resource
• Financial resource
• Technical resource
• No online reporting infrastructure
• Inadequate human resource for PV activities
• No PV law to enforce regulations
• Technical resource
• Human resource
• Political resource
  1. Group 1: Countries with minimal or no capacity for PV
  2. Group 2: Countries with basic organizational structures
  3. Group 3: Countries have the capacity to collect and evaluate safety data based on legal and organizational structures
  4. Group 4: Countries that have basic structures for both passive and active surveillance activities