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Table 2 Risk factors for total underweight in children aged less than 5 years

From: Socio-economic risk factors for early childhood underweight in Bangladesh

Factors   Underweight (%) N OR 95% CI
Household member <=3 33.24 2449 ref.  
4–6 31.54 10,904 0.91 (0.82–1.00)
> = 7 31.03 3780 1.00 (0.88–1.13)
Age (Months) 0–5 21.10 1872 ref.  
6–11 21.88 1851 1.17 (0.98–1.39)
12–23 31.05 3749 1.98 (1.69–2.32)***
24–35 36.91 3530 2.58 (2.20–3.03)***
36–47 35.62 3212 2.44 (2.07–2.88)***
48–59 34.77 2919 2.35 (1.98–2.77)***
Gender Male 32.15 8853 ref.  
Female 31.16 8280 0.96 (0.90–1.03)
Area Urban 26.52 2719 ref.  
Rural 32.64 14,414 0.96 (0.86–1.07)
Division Dhaka 30.29 4345 ref.  
Barisal 33.96 1652 1.04 (0.91–1.19)
Chittagong 33.59 3346 1.11 (0.99–1.24)
Khulna 26.55 2392 0.85 (0.75–0.96)**
Rajshahi 30.14 1762 0.90 (0.79–1.02)
Rangpur 32.17 2229 0.98 (0.87–1.11)
Sylhet 38.52 1407 1.38 (1.20–1.60)***
Education of mother None 39.55 4129 ref.  
Primary incomplete 37.18 2493 1.02 (0.91–1.14)
Primary complete 34.36 2637 0.96 (0.85–1.07)
Secondary incomplete 27.19 5926 0.84 (0.75–0.94)**
Secondary complete or higher 17.92 1948 0.77 (0.64–0.93)**
Education of father None 38.25 5428 ref.  
Primary incomplete 35.66 2454 0.98 (0.88–1.09)
Primary complete 33.15 2145 0.97 (0.87–1.09)
Secondary incomplete 27.81 3175 0.88 (0.79–0.98)*
Secondary complete or higher 19.30 2399 0.72 (0.62–0.84)***
Wealth index quintile Poorest 40.11 4979 ref.  
Second 35.54 3745 0.90 (0.82–0.99)*
Middle 30.78 3203 0.82 (0.73–0.91)***
Fourth 25.48 2830 0.67 (0.59–0.77)***
Richest 16.46 2376 0.44 (0.37–0.53)***
Child drank plain water yesterday Yes 32.11 14,619 ref.  
No 29.03 2487 1.27 (1.12–1.43)***
Child drank milk yesterday Yes 26.94 4013 ref.  
No 33.10 13,105 1.07 (0.98–1.17)
Child ate vitamins yesterday Yes 28.69 1551 ref.  
No 31.97 15,559 0.96 (0.84–1.09)
Toilet facility Flush latrine 24.46 4100 ref.  
Pit latrine 32.53 10,677 1.04 (0.94–1.16)
Hanging latrine 41.86 1333 1.11 (0.95–1.30)
Others 38.29 1016 1.02 (0.86–1.22)
Salt iodization test Not iodized 0 PPM 36.54 4619 ref.  
More than 0 PPM and less than 15 PPM 34.77 3486 0.96 (0.87–1.06)
15 PPM or more 27.90 8750 0.90 (0.82–0.98)*
No salt in the household 29.30 157 0.80 (0.55–1.16)
Number of under five children     1.02 (0.93–1.11)
  1. *** p < 0.001; ** p < 0.01; * p < 0.05