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Table 4 Country-level confounding variables controlled for in two or more studies

From: Analyzing the impacts of global trade and investment on non-communicable diseases and risk factors: a critical review of methodological approaches used in quantitative analyses

Indicator Number (%) of studies using as confounding variable
GDP (or GNI) per capita (including squared term or growth rate) 26 (76)
Urbanization rate (or urban growth rate) 10 (29)
Population (total, density, or growth rate) 7 (21)
Educational attainment (years completed, enrollment rate, or literacy rate) 6 (18)
Income inequality 4 (12)
Female labor force participation rate 3 (9)
Health expenditure (% of GDP, total or public) 3 (9)
Average caloric intake 2 (6)
Consumer price index 2 (6)
Dependency ratio 2 (6)
FDI (total or % of GDP) 2 (6)
Fertility rate 2 (6)
Political rights/civil liberties index 2 (6)
Polity score 2 (6)
Immunization rate (any type) 2 (6)
Smoking prevalence 2 (6)
No confounders included/tested in models 7 (21)
  1. Counts and percentages do not sum to the total number of studies reviewed (100%) because most studies included multiple possible confounders