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Table 3 Association of early neonatal mortality with risk factors

From: Determinants of early neonatal mortality in Afghanistan: an analysis of the Demographic and Health Survey 2015

Variables COR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
Individual factors
Sex
 Female Ref Ref
 Male 1.5* (1.1–2.1) 1.3 (1.0–1.6)
Birth size
 Average Ref Ref
 Smaller than average 1.8* (1.1–2.9) 1.8** (1.2–2.6)
 Larger than average 2.6*** (1.7–3.9) 2.9*** (2.2–3.8)
Multiple gestation
 No Ref Ref
 Yes 8.6*** (4.7–15.5) 9.3*** (5.7–15.0)
Maternal factors
Maternal age
 15–18 years 1.8 (0.9–3.6) 1.8* (1.1–3.2)
 19–34 years Ref Ref
 35–49 years 1.6* (1.1–2.3) 1.7*** (1.3–2.3)
Birth rank
 Primi 1.2 (0.8–2.0) 1.1 (0.7–1.7)
 Second to fourth pregnancy Ref Ref
 Fifth or higher pregnancy 1.9*** (1.3–2.9) 1.4 (0.7–2.8)
Birth Interval
 < 2 years 1.5* (1.0–2.3) 1.7*** (1.3–2.2)
 ≥ 2 years Ref Ref
Antenatal factors
Desire for pregnancy
 Wanted then Ref  
 Wanted later 0.4* (0.2–0.9) 0.7 (0.4–1.3)
 Wanted no more 1.0 (0.5–1.9) 0.9 (0.5–1.7)
Antenatal care
 No Ref Ref
 Yes 0.5*** (0.4–0.7) 0.7* (0.5–0.9)
Delivery factors
Delivery assistance
 Unskilled birth attendant Ref  
 Skilled delivery attendant 0.6** (0.4–0.8)  
Place of delivery
 Home Ref Ref
 Hospital/health centre 0.6** (0.4–0.8) 0.7* (0.5–0.9)
Socioeconomic characteristics
Sex of the household head
 Male Ref Ref
 Female 0.2* (0.1–0.8) 1.1 (0.3–1.4)
Maternal education level
 No formal education Ref Ref
 Primary 0.3* (0.1–0.8) 0.6 (0.3–1.1)
 Secondary or higher 0.7 (0.4–1.5) 1.6 (0.9–2.7)
Paternal education level
 No formal education Ref Ref
 Primary 0.8 (0.5–1.2) 0.9 (0.6–1.3)
 Secondary or higher 0.6* (0.4–0.9) 0.7* (0.5–1.0)
Wealth status
 Poorest Ref Ref
 Poorer 1.3 (0.8–2.1) 1.0 (0.7–1.5)
 Middle 1.2 (0.7–1.9) 1.2 (0.8–1.8)
 Richer 0.7 (0.4–1.3) 1.1 (0.7–1.7)
 Richest 0.61 (0.3–1.1) 1.1 (0.6–1.1)
Community level variables
Antenatal care utilization
 Low Ref Ref
 High 0.71 (0.5–1.1) 1.0 (0.7–1.4)
Utilization of facility delivery
 Low Ref Ref
 High 0.6* (0.4–0.9) 1.0 (0.7–1.3)
Community women’s education
 Low Ref Ref
 High 0.3* (0.1–0.8) 0.4* (0.2–0.9)
Community poverty
 Low Ref  
 High 0.9 (0.6–1.4)  
Place of residence
 Urban Ref Ref
 Rural 1.9* (1.1–3.2) 1.1 (0.7–1.6)
Region
 North Eastern Ref Ref
 North Western 0.3*** (0.2–0.6) 0.5** (0.3–0.8)
 Central Eastern 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 1.1 (0.7–1.8)
 Central 0.5* (0.3–0.9) 0.9 (0.6–1.5)
 Central Western 0.6* (0.4–0.9) 0.5* (0.3–0.9)
 Southern Eastern 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 1.0 (0.6–1.6)
 Southern Western 0.9 (0.5–1.6) 0.4*** (0.2–0.6)
  1. 1 - p < 0.2, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001, COR crude odds ratio, AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval