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Table 1 Explanatory variables

From: Determinants of early neonatal mortality in Afghanistan: an analysis of the Demographic and Health Survey 2015

Study variables Description and categories
Infants’ individual factors
Sex Sex of the baby at birth (0 = female; 1 = male).
Birth size Subjective assessment of the mother about child-size after birth (1 = average; 2 = smaller than average; 3 = larger than average).
Multiple gestation Whether more than one child was born (0 = no; 1 = yes).
Maternal factors
Maternal age Maternal age during child-birth (0 = 19–34 years; 1 = ≤18 years; 2 = 35–49 years).
Birth rank Birth order of the baby (0 = second to fourth pregnancy; 1 = primi; 2 = fifth or higher pregnancy).
Birth interval Interval between last pregnancy and current pregnancy (0 = ≥2 years; 1 = < 2 years).
Antenatal factors
Desire for pregnancy Intention to become pregnant when women conceived (1 = wanted then; 2 = wanted later; 3 = wanted no more).
Antenatal care Whether the mother received antenatal checkup during pregnancy by a skilled health care personnel (0 = no; 1 = yes).
Delivery factors
Delivery assistance Assistance during child-birth (0 = unskilled birth attendant; 1 = skilled delivery attendant). Skilled attendants were doctors, nurses, midwives, or auxiliary nurse/midwives.
Place of delivery Place of child-birth (0 = home; 1 = hospital/health centre).
Socioeconomic characteristics
Sex of the household head Sex of the head of the household (1 = male; 2 = female).
Maternal education level Education level of the mother (0 = no formal education; 1 = primary; 2 = secondary or higher).
Paternal education level Education level of the father (0 = no formal education; 1 = primary; 2 = secondary or higher).
Wealth status Household wealth quintile (1 = poorest; 2 = poorer; 3 = middle; 4 = richer; 5 = richest).
Community level factors
Community antenatal care utilization Proportion of women who received four or more antenatal care visit during pregnancy (1 = low (≤25%), 2 = high (> 25%)).
Utilization of facility delivery Percentage of women in a cluster who were delivered at health facility (1 = low (≤50%), 2 = high (> 50%)).
Community education level Percentage of women in a cluster who had at least secondary or above level of education (1 = low (≤50%), 2 = high (> 50%)).
Community poverty level Percentage of women who were from the first two wealth quintiles (1 = high (≥75%), 2 = low (< 75%)).
Place of residence Type of the cluster (1 = urban; 2 = rural).
Region Region of residence within the country (1 = North Eastern; 2 = North Western; 3 = Central Eastern; 4 = Central; 5 = Central Western; 6 = Southern Eastern; 7 = Southern Western).