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Table 3 Respondent characteristics, IAT effect and explicit survey measures

From: Measuring the bias against low-income country research: an Implicit Association Test

  IAT Explicit survey
Independent variables N % Cohen’s d (95% CI) % Agree % Not agree
Males 83 25.86 0.61 (0.53, 0.69) 25.61 74.39**
Females 225 70.09 0.55 (0.50, 0.60) 48.42 51.58
 20–29 81 25.23 0.54 (0.46, 0.63) 37.50 62.50
 30–39 119 37.07 0.53 (0.46, 0.59) 41.18 58.82
 40–49 60 18.69 0.59 (0.50, 0.69) 45.76 54.24
 50–59 34 10.59 0.62 (0.49, 0.75) 40.62 59.38
 60+ 16 4.98 0.75 (0.61, 0.89) 56.25 43.75
Academic qualification only 276 85.98 0.55 (0.51, 0.60) 42.28 57.72
Clinical qualification only 16 4.98 0.60 (0.42, 0.78) 43.75 56.25
Clinical-Academic qualification 18 5.61 0.69 (0.52, 0.87) 55.56 44.44
US born 146 46.79 0.57 (0.51, 0.63) 45.07 54.93
Non-US born 163 52.24 0.57 (0.51, 0.63) 38.27 61.73
US lives 180 57.32 0.56 (0.51, 0.62) 48.59 51.41
Non-US lives 127 40.45 0.57 (0.51, 0.63) 33.33 66.67
Live and born in US 176 54.83 0.56 (0.50, 0.62) 40.23 59.77*
Live and born in different countries 138 42.99 0.58 (0.52, 0.64) 45.93 54.07
Works at a University 211 66.56 0.56 (0.51, 0.61) 39.42 60.58
Does not work at a University 106 33.44 0.58 (0.51, 0.64) 48.08 51.92
Reads research daily 146 45.91 0.56 (0.50, 0.63) 41.78 58.22
Reads research less than daily 172 54.09 0.57 (0.51, 0.63) 43.11 56.89
Peer reviewer 173 45.17 0.53 (0.47, 0.59) 39.77 60.23
Not a peer reviewer 145 53.89 0.61 (0.55, 0.66) 45.77 54.23
IAT response categories
 Moderate pro-poor 4 1.25 −0.509 (−0.57, −0.45) 100.00 0.00
 Slight pro-poor 8 2.49 −0.232 (−0.28, −0.19) 37.50 62.50
 Neutral 32 9.97 0.017 (−0.02, 0.05) 34.38 65.62
 Slight pro-rich 43 13.4 0.251 (0.232, 0.27) 54.76 45.24
 Moderate pro-rich 94 29.28 0.515 (0.50, 0.53) 39.78 60.22
 Strong pro-rich 67 20.87 0.748 (0.74, 0.76) 47.69 52.31
 Very strong pro-rich 73 22.74 1.038 (1.00, 1.07) 34.72 65.28
Total 321 100.00 0.57 (0.52, 0.61) 42.41 57.59
  1. *p < 0.05 **p < 0.01