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Table 2 Overview of process evaluation methods

From: Disentangling the effects of a multiple behaviour change intervention for diarrhoea control in Zambia: a theory-based process evaluation

Research Method or Data Source Data Type Respondents Core Information Sought Purpose of Information Timing
Activity logs Quantitative NHC & Komboni Housewife implementers Number of individuals from target population attending Forums and ORT Corner Sessions. Number of men, women and children attending Road Shows. Activities conducted, availability of supplies and challenges faced Fidelity, dose delivered, reach Throughout intervention
CIDRZ staff Content and quality of delivery of Radio shows Fidelity Throughout intervention
Spot check field observations Quantitative CIDRZ staff Content and quality of delivery and participant engagement, according to an observation checklist. Contextual information on delivery & receipt in clusters, including features of each site. Fidelity, participant engagement, context Throughout intervention
Semi-structured interviews Qualitative NHC & Komboni Housewife implementers Successes and challenges of intervention delivery from perspective of the implementers Recruitment strategies and challenges in each cluster (to enable comparison with the levels of reach achieved in that cluster) Acceptability of intervention messages and activities Fidelity, recruitment, context, acceptability, participant engagement & responses Midway through intervention & 4–6 weeks post intervention
Creative Agency (DDB) and Activation Agency (EXP) Reasons for any deviations from planned activities Fidelity Midway through intervention
Nurse-in-Charge at intervention clinics Information on the (clinic) environment and work load of staff Health Centre perspective on ORT Corner Sessions Context, acceptability 4–6 weeks post intervention
Intervention recipients (pairs) Comprehension of messages and emotional responses to the intervention. Acceptability of intervention messages and activities Participant responses, acceptability Throughout intervention
Intervention recipients Retention of key messages and reflections on the intervention Participant responses 4–6 weeks post intervention
Focus group discussions Qualitative Komboni Housewife implementers Successes and challenges of intervention delivery from perspective of the implementers Recruitment strategies and challenges in each cluster (to enable comparison with the levels of reach achieved in that cluster) Data on delivery & receipt in clusters, including features of each site Acceptability of intervention messages and activities Fidelity, recruitment, context, acceptability, participant engagement & responses 4–6 weeks post intervention
Intervention recipients Retention of key messages and reflections on the intervention. Reactions to gossip in relation to the target behaviours Participant responses, mediators 4–6 weeks post intervention
Unexposed control arm participants Reactions to gossip in relation to the target behaviours Mediators 4–6 weeks post intervention
Household survey Quantitative Sample of individuals in intervention arm and control arm Proportion of sample reporting attendance of each intervention component/listening to the radio show at least once in each intervention and control cluster. Recall and recognition of intervention concept, messages. Quantitative capture of indicators relating to hypothesised behavioural determinants Reach, participant responses, mediators At baseline (mediators) & 4–6 weeks post intervention
Document review Quantitative Intervention Schedule Spreadsheet Information on deviations from planned activities Fidelity 4–6 weeks post intervention
  1. NHCs (Neighbourhood Health Committee volunteers) implemented the intervention at the clinics (ORT Corner Sessions), the hired actors (the Komboni Housewives) implemented the forums and road shows and were managed by EXP (an Activation Agency)