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Table 2 Refugees, asylum-seekers and undocumented migrants and parenthood experiences: Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Refugees, asylum-seekers and undocumented migrants and the experience of parenthood: a synthesis of the qualitative literature

Inclusion Criteria
 1. Included refugees, asylum-seekers and/or undocumented migrantsa
 2. Focused on the parenthood experience (i.e., experience of becoming a parent and/or raising and caring for children)b
 3. Was empirical research (i.e., dissertations or published journal articles; excluded commentaries, theoretical/discussion papers, reviews, books, book reviews, editorials, conference abstracts/proceedings, or newspaper/magazine articles)
 4. Qualitative or mixed methods research designs that had qualitative data reported as themes
 5. Was written in English or French
 6. Published between January 2006 to January 2016 (search updated to also include literature from period of January 2016 to February 2017 inclusive)
Exclusion Criteria
 1. Examined the migration-parenthood experience only in the context of illness or disability (child or parent)
 2. Described only the experience of transnational parenting (i.e., parents who migrated and were parenting from a distance, children who remained in the country of origin)c
 3. Focused on parenting styles and (cultural) beliefs without any reference to how migration had an influence on parenting practices and beliefs
 4. Described the behaviors, actions, experiences of migrant parents in a new country without any mention of the role of migration on these
 5. Studied the migration-parenthood experience only from the perspective of a healthcare professional/service-provider and/or children. Or the text/media (data sources) were not produced by parents
 6. Tested a parenting intervention
 7. Described the development of an instrument
  1. a Refugees are those who fled their country for reasons of persecution; Asylum-seekers are those who are seeking refugee status in another country and awaiting a response; and Undocumented migrants are those who migrated through irregular channels (i.e., movement outside of regulatory norms including entry and stay without the necessary authorization or documents required under immigration regulations). Studies may also have included other migrants in their samples
  2. b Becoming a parent included women’s experiences of pregnancy and giving birth only if it included the experience of becoming a mother. Parenthood experiences included the experiences of mothers, fathers and also other individuals parenting children (e.g., grandparents)
  3. cStudies that described the experience of parenthood in the context of reunification (parents and children in the new country) or discussed issues of transnational parenting as it related to the parenthood experience in the new country, were included